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News & Updates  >>  Paper of the Week

News & Updates

Paper of the Week

The paper of the week is dedicated to extended summaries of scientific publications with significant impact.
A Potential Role for Kir5.1 Channel in pH Sensitivity in 5-HT Neurons
A search of age-related changes of pH-sensitive molecules in 5-HT neurons gave rise to the identification of Kir5.1 channel as a potential candidate in CO2/pH chemosensitivity in brainstem 5-HT neurons. Immunohistochemical staining of rat brainstem sections using Anti-Kir4.1 (#APC-035) and Anti-Kir5.1 (#APC-123) antibodies showed that both channels are expressed (Puissant, M.M. et al. (2017) Front. Cell. Neurosci. 11, 34.)
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NaV1.1, NaV1.6 and NaV1.7 Channels in Muscle Spindle Signaling
NaVs contribute to multiple steps in sensory signaling in muscle spindles. Strong immunostaining for NaV1.6 was detected in mouse sensory terminals using Anti-NaV1.6 antibody (#ASC-009) together with NaV1.1 as was detected using Anti-NaV1.1 antibody (#ASC-001). Anti-NaV1.7 antibody (#ASC-008) was used to show that NaV1.7 is mostly localized to preterminal axons. (Carrasco, D.I. et al. (2017) J. Neurophysiol. 117, 1690.).
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Aquaporin 3 Mediates H2O2 Signaling in Colon
AQP-3 is expressed in cells of mouse distal colon sections as shown in immunohistochemistry using Anti-Aquaporin 3 antibody (#AQP-003), (Thiagarajah, J.R. et al. (2017) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 568.).
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Novel & Critical Role for Serotonergic Synapses in Merkel Discs
Immunohistochemical staining of mouse trigeminal ganglion (TG) sections using Alomone Labs Anti-5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 2A (extracellular) (#ASR-033), Anti-5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 2B (extracellular) (#ASR-035) and Anti-5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptor 3A (#ASR-031) antibodies shows that all three receptors are expressed in retrogradely labeled whisker afferent neurons (Chang, W. et al. (2016) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, E5491.)
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Spontaneous L-Type Currents in DA Neurons
Immunohistochemical staining of rat brain sections using Anti-CaV1.2 (#ACC-003) or Anti-CaV1.3 (#ACC-005) antibodies, shows that CaV1.3 channel is detected in SNc and VTA regions while little or no CaV1.2 is expressed (Philippart, F. et al. (2016) J. Neurosci. 36, 7234.).
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Activation of Kir4.1 by Insulin in the Kidney
Kir4.1 channel expression (Figure 1) in the kidney was validated by immunohistochemical staining of mouse kidney sections using Anti-Kir4.1 antibody (#APC-035). Kir4.1 staining (red) is localized to the distal convoluted tubes (Zaika, O. et al. (2016) Am. J. Physiol. 310, F311).
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AT1R Inhibition Protects against Ventilator-Induced Diaphragm Dysfunction
Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 expression was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining of rat diaphragm sections using Anti-Angiotensin Receptor Type 1 (extracellular)-ATTO-550 antibody (#AAR-011-AO), (Kwon, O.S. et al. (2015) J. Appl. Physiol. 119, 1033.).
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Thermal Nociception Sensitivity Is Attributed to TRPV1 Expression Levels
Immunohistochemical staining of mouse trigeminal (TG) sections using Anti-TRPV1 antibody (#ACC-030) showed that TRPV1 expression was significantly higher in IB4-positive TG neurons of C57BL/6 strain. Results suggest that the differential expression of TRPV1 in IB4-positive TG neurons strains contributes to the differences in thermal nociception in different mouse strains (Ono, K. et al. (2015) J. Neurophysiol. 113, 3345.).
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Effects of ClC-2 Knockout in Gastric Mucosa
Immunohistochemical staining of mouse gastric tissue sections using Anti-CLC-2 antibody (#ACL-002) showed that the chloride channel is localized to parietal cells along with H+/K+ ATPase. The specificity of the antibody was demonstrated in western blot analysis and in immunohistochemical staining which show lack of immunostaining of the channel in CLC-2 knockout mice (Nighot, M.P. et al. (2015) PLoS ONE 10, e0138174.). 
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D3 Dopamine Receptor in L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia
Expression of D3 dopamine receptor in mouse L-DOPA-treated brain is significantly increased as shown in immunohistochemical staining of free-floating mouse brain sections using Anti-D3 Dopamine Receptor antibody (#ADR-003), (Solis, O. et al. (2015) Cereb. Cortex In press.).
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Melatonin Receptors in ipRGCs
Expression of Melatonin receptors, MT1 and MT2 was examined using western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses using Anti-Melatonin Receptor Type 1 (#AMR-031) and Anti-Melatonin Receptor Type 2 (#AMR-032) antibodies (Sheng, W.L. et al. (2015) PLoS ONE 10, e0117967.).
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P2Y14 Receptor in the Kidney's Inflammatory Response 
P2Y14 receptor is expressed in kidney collecting duct intercalated cells where it mediates sterile inflammation. Immunohistochemical staining of mouse kidney sections using Anti-P2Y14 Receptor (extracellular) antibody (#APR-018) demonstrates that the receptor is exclusively expressed in intercalated cells and co-localizes with V-ATPase B1 subunit expressed in these cells (Azroyan, A. et al. (2015) PLoS ONE 10, e0121419.).
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CaV3.2 and Hypoxia in the Carotid Body
CaV3.2 channel is the major T-type CaV channel expressed in glomus cells, the cells important for sensing O2. Immunohistochemistry of rat carotid body sections using Anti-CaV3.2 antibody (#ACC-025) shows that CaV3.2 is highly expressed in the carotid body (Makarenko, V.V. et al. (2015) Am. J. Physiol. 308, C146.).
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P2X7 Receptor and Bone Cancer Pain
Reports suggest that microglial P2X7 receptor is involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Immunohistochemical staining of rat spinal dorsal horn using Anti-P2X7 antibody (#APR-004) or Anti-P2X7 (extracellular) antibody (#APR-008) shows that P2X7 expression is significantly up-regulated on post-tumor day 14 (PTD 14) (Yang, Y. et al. (2015) J. Neurosci. 35, 7950.). 
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Downregulation of TRPV4 in Diabetes
Immunohistochemical staining of rat retinal sections shows that TRPV4 expression detected using Anti-TRPV4 antibody (#ACC-034) decreases by almost 70% in diabetic animals (Monaghan, K. et al. (2015) PLoS ONE 10, e0128359.).
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Expression of Kir4.1 in cTAL
Immunohistochemical staining of mouse kidney sections using Anti-Kir4.1 antibody (#APC-035) showed that the channel is expressed in the basolateral membrane of cTAL (Zhang, C. et al. (2015) Am. J. Physiol. 308, F1288.). 
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LTH Increases KCa1.1 Activity but not Expression
Long term hypoxia (LTH) was found to increase Ca2+ affinity of BK Channels in cerebral artery smooth muscle of both adult and fetal ovine. Expression of the channel does not change as chown in immunohistochemical staining of BK channels in ovine arteriole myocytes using Anti-KCa1.1 (BKCa) (extracellular) antibody (#APC-151) shows that the α subunit is equally expressed among the different groups (Figure 1) (Tao, X. et al. (2015) Am. J. Physiol. 308, H707.). 
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HCN Channels in the Persistent Firing in Dentate Gyrus
Anti-HCN1 antibody (#APC-056) detected HCN1 expression in parvalbumin-expressing perisoma-inhibiting interneurons (Elgueta, C. et al. (2015) J. Neurosci. 35, 4131.).
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Neural NaV Channels and Ca2+ Release in Arrhythmias
Immunocytochemical staining of mouse isolated myocytes using Alomone Labs Anti-NaV1.1 (#ASC-001), Anti-NaV1.3 (#ASC-013) and Anti-NaV1.6 (#ASC-009) antibodies shows that all three neuronal NaV channels co-localize with Ryanodine receptor 2, a marker of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Figure 1). Together with electrophysiological studies, the data sheds light on the mechanism regarding Ca2+ release and arrhythmias (Radwanski, P.B. et al. (2015) Cardiovasc. Res. 106, 143.).
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TRPV2 in Stress-Induced Ca2+ Influx
TRPV2 channel was found to be involved in the increase in Ca2+ influx observed in cardiomyocytes isolated from the mouse model system for DMD. In diseased mice, immunocytochemical staining of cardiomyocytes using Alomone Labs Anti-TRPV2 (extracellular) antibody (#ACC-039) showed that TRPV2 is translocated to the sarcolemma and is prominent along the T-tubules (Lorin, C. et al. (2015) Cardiovasc. Res. pii: cvv021.).
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Role of KV7 Channels in Coronary Arteries
The role of KV7 channels in vasodilation by hypoxia and the effect of diabetes on their expression and activity were investigated. Immunocytochemical staining of rat smooth muscle cells from LCA and RCA using Anti-KV7.1 (KCNQ1) antibody (#APC-022) and Anti-KV7.5 (KCNQ5) antibody (#APC-155) showed that the expression of both channels is higher in LCA than in RCA. (Morales Cano, D. et al. (2015) Cardiovasc. Res. doi:10.1093/cvr/cvv020.).
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KV3.4 and Pain following SCI
Dysregulation of KV3.4 channel is involved in pain sensation following spinal cord injury (SCI). Western blot analysis of rat DRG lysates using Anti-KV3.4 antibody (#APC-019) showed no significant changes in KV3.4 protein levels from control and SCI rats. However, immunohistochemical staining of rat DRGs showed that cell surface expression of KV3.4 decreased following SCI (Ritter, D.M. et al. (2015) J. Neurosci. 35, 1260.).
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P2X7R Involvement in Bowel Inflammation
P2X7 was detected in myenteric neurons of rat distal colon in immunohistochemical staining using Anti-P2X7 Receptor (extracellular)-ATTO-488 antibody (#APR-008-AG). In the presence of colitis, its expression significantly increased in the neuromuscular layer (Antonioli, L. et al. (2014) PLoS ONE 9, e116253.). 
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Caveolin-1 Regulates P2X7 Receptor in Osteoblasts
MC3T3-E1, murine preosteoblast-like cells underwent immunocytochemical staining with labeled cholera toxin and Anti-P2X7 Receptor (extracellular)-FITC antibody (#APR-008-F) (Gangadharan, V. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 308, C41.).
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TRPV1 Plasma Membrane Localization in Peptidergic Nociceptors is Dependent on αCGRP
Immunocytochemical staining of mouse DRG neurons using Anti-TRPV1 antibody (#ACC-030) shows that TRPV1 co-localizes with CGRP in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) (Devesa, I. et al. (2014) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. pii: 201420252.).
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AQP2 Excretion and Expression Decrease during Gentamicin Treatment
AQP2 could be a candidate for detecting kidney collecting duct dysfunction as a result of gentamicin treatment. Immunohistochemical staining of rat kidney sections using Anti-Aquaporin 2 antibody (#AQP-002) showed that AQP2 expression and excretion decrease following gentamicin treatment (Abdeen, A. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 307, F1227.). 
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AQP4 Trafficking and Gating are Independent of Serine Phosphorylation
Immunocytochemical staining of transfected C6 rat glial cells using Anti-Aquaporin 4 (249-323) antibody (#AQP-004) shows that phosphorylation of AQP4 is not responsible for plasma membrane trafficking of the channel (Assentoft, M. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 307, C957.).
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KCa3.1 Modulates Placental Syncytialization
IKCa (KCa3.1, SK4) channel is involved in the formation of syncytiotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast volume regulation. Immunocytochemical staining of isolated human cytotrophoblasts using mouse monoclonal Anti-KCa3.1 (SK4) (extracellular) antibody (#ALM-051) showed that SK4 channel is indeed expressed in these cells (Diaz, P. et al. (2014) PLoS ONE 9, e90961.).
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BK Channels for Proper SAN cells Functioning
Immunocytochemical staining of isolated mouse sinoatrial cells (SANCs) using Anti-KCa1.1 (1097-1196) antibody (#APC-021) shows that the expression of BK channel overlaps with that of HCN4 (Lai, M.H. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 307, H1327.).
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Impairement of KV4.3 Channels in PD Dopaminergic Neurons
Immunohistochemical staining of mouse brain sections using Anti-KV4.3 antibody (#APC-017) showed that KV4.3 channel levels increased in DA substantia-nigra neurons of α-synuclein mutant mice but not in DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (Subramaniam, M. et al. (2014) J. Neurosci. 34, 13586.).
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A Novel TRPM8 Antagonist
Anti-TRPM8 (extracellular) antibody (#ACC-049) blocked cold and iciclin activation of human TRPM8 heterologously expressed in CHO cells, but did not block cold activation of TRPA1 and heat activation of TRPV1 (Miller, S. et al. (2014) PLoS ONE 9, e10751.).
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Upregulation of CaV3.2 under Hypoxia
Immunocytochemical staining of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using Anti-CaV3.2 (#ACC-025) and Anti-CaV3.1 (#ACC-021) shows that only CaV3.2 is indeed upregulated in both cell types in response to 3% O2 (Sellak, H. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 307, C648.).
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p75NTR-Dependent Transport of Rabies Virus
Rabies virus was shown to co-localize with p75NTR in living mouse DRGs using Anti-Human p75NTR (extracellular)-ATTO-550 antibody (#ANT-007-AO). It seems that Rabies virus uses p75NTR receptor to enter cells and is transported into acidic vesicles with the receptor Gluska, S. et al. (2014) PLoS Pathog. 10, e1004348.).
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Overexpression of TRPV6 in Prostate Cancer
TRPV6 is overexpressed in prostate cancer (Pca) as shown in immunohistochemical staining of human prostate sections using Anti-TRPV6 antibody (#ACC-036) (Raphael, M. et al. (2014) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, E3870.).
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The Importance of T-Tubules in Ca2+ Homeostasis
T-tubules we found to be important and to function across the atria in order to maintain proper Ca2+ homeostasis.
Proper localization of CaV1.2 channels in rat heart was accomplished by immunocytochemical staining using Anti-CaV1.2 antibody (#ACC-003) (Frisk, M. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 307, H609.).
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Regulation of Kir6.2 via μ- and δ-Opioid Receptors
Insensitivity to hypoxia in AMC cells is caused by chronic stimulation of μ- and δ-opioid receptors. Expression of these receptors were demonstrated in immunocytochemical staining of immortalized chromaffin cells using Anti-δ-Opioid Receptor (extracellular) (#AOR-014) and Anti-μ-Opioid Receptor (extracellular) (#AOR-011) antibodies. Chronic activation of these receptors leads in part to an increase in Kir6.2 KATP channel expression (Salman, S. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 307, C266.).
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CaV3.1 Important for Pacemaker Activity
Immunohistochemical staining of mouse kidney sections using Anti-CaV3.1 antibody (#ACC-021) shows that the channel is expressed in the pelvis kidney junction (PKJ) where they regulate the frequency of the upper urinary tract contractions (Hurtado, R. et al. (2014) FASEB J. 28, 730.).
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TRPC3 increase following BDNF treatment
BDNF causes Ca2+ mobilization through the upregulation of TRPC3 surface expression in microglia cells, as shown in immunocytochemistry and indirect flow cytometry using Anti-TRPC3 antibody (#ACC-016) (Mizoguchi, Y. et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 18549.).
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TRPC6 an important player in myogenic contraction of cerebral arteries
A model involving phospholipase C (PLC), TRPC6 and TRPM4 as key players was proposed for the sensation of stretch and the initiation of myogenic constriction. Anti-TRPC6 extracellular antibody (#ACC-120) blocked stretch activated transient inward currents in myocytes. The antibody also detected TRPC6 in living rat cerebral artery smooth muscle cells (Gonzales, A.L. et al. (2014) Sci. Signal. 7, ra49.).
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SNX-482 the most potent KV4.3 blocker to date
SNX-482 (#RTS-500) was found to be a more potent blocker for KV4.3 than for CaV2.3 its original target (Kimm, T. and Bean, B.P. (2014) J. Neurosci. 34, 9182.).
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BDNF and myelin production
Astrocyte-derived BDNF was shown to promote the expression of myelin, upon myelin depletion. Immunohistochemical staining of mouse brain sections using Anti-BDNF antibody (#ANT-010) shows that BDNF co-localizes with the astrocyte marker, GFAP (Fulmer, C.G. et al. (2014) J. Neurosci. 34, 8186.).
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The role of KCNE3 in auditory neurons
The role of KCNE in auditory neurons was investigated in part by using Anti-KCNE3 (MiRP2) antibody (#APC-118) in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry satinings of wild type and Kcne3-/- mice (Wang, W. et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 16802.).
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P2X4 as a lysosome ion channel
P2X4 purinergic receptor forms functional ion channels in lysosomes. The channel was detected in lysosomes by immunocytochemical staining and cell fractionation using Anti-P2X4 Receptor antibody (#APR-002) (Huang, P. et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 17658.).
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Downregulation of Mas receptor in mice over-expressing GH
Mas receptor expression decreases in mice over-expressing growth hormone (GH), as shown in immunohistochemical staining of mouse heart and kidney sections, using Anti-Angiotensin-(1-7) Mas Receptor antibody (#AAR-013), (Munoz, M.C. et al. (2014) J. Endocrinol. 221, 215.).
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CaV2.2 and fragile X syndrome
ω-Conotoxin GVIA (#C-300) and ω-Agatoxin IVA were used to show that fragile X mental protein (FMRP) modulates synaptic vesicle exocytosis via CaV2.2 N-type Ca2+ channels (Ferron, L. et al. (2014) Nat. Commun. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4628.).
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CaV1.3 and [Ca2+]i in SGNs
Immunohistochemical staining of mouse cochlear sections using Anti-CaV1.3 antibody (#ACC-005) shows that the channel is expressed in the apical and basal regions of the cochlea (Lv, P. et al. (2014) J. Neurosci. 34, 7383.).
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TRPV4 in polycystic kidney disease
TRPV4 channel localization is abnormal in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. The channel's distribution is strongly shifted to the apical membrane. The authors show immuno-colocalization of TRPV4 and Aquaporin 2 channels using Anti-TRPV4 (#ACC-034) and Anti-Aquaporin 2-ATTO-550 (#AQP-002-AO) antibodies (Zaika, O. et al. (2013) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 24, 604.).
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Kir2.1 channel in SQT3 syndrome
A gain of function in the gene encoding Kir2.1 channels causes increased Kir2.1 surface expression and stability at the plasma membrane as shown in immunocytochemical staining and western blot analysis of human astrocytoma U-251 MG cells using Anti-Kir2.1 antibody (#APC-026) (Ambrosini, E. et al. (2014) Hum. Mol. Genet. In press.).
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Downregulation of CaV1.2 decreases VSMC contractile phenotype
Immunocytochemical staining of isolated rat VSMCs treated with siRNA against CaV1.2 channels showed a significant decrease in CaV1.2 expression using Anti-CaV1.2 antibody (#ACC-003) (Kudryavtseva, O. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 306, H1287.).
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mAChRs modulate BK channels to regulate synaptic strength
BK channels were identified by whole-cell current-clamp recordings. The SK blocker Apamin (#STA-200) had no effect on uEPSPs. However, the BK blocker Iberiotoxin (#STI-400) increased uEPSPs, mimicking the activation of mAChRs (Figure 1) (He, S. et al. (2014) J. Neurosci. 34, 5261.).
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KCa3.1 in neuroblast migration
KCa 3.1 channel modulates the migration of neuroblasts and TRPC1 supplies the Ca2+ for its activation. Immunohistochemical staining of mouse brain sections using mouse Anti-KCa3.1 (SK4) (extracellular) antibody (#ALM-051) and Anti-TRPC1 antibody (#ACC-010) shows that the two channels immuno-colocalize to neuroblasts (Turner, K.L. and Sontheimer, H. (2013) Cereb. Cortex doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht090.).
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Involvement of TRPC3 in hyperexcitability and epilepsy
Immunohistochemistry of rat coronal brain sections using Anti-TRPC3 antibody (#ACC-016) showed that the channel is highly expressed in brains from immature rats and very weak in mature cortex. TRPC3 expression increases in mature brains with cortical dysplasia (Zhou, F.W. and Roger, S.N. (2014) J. Neurophysiol. 111, 1227.).
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SK4 in cardiac pacemaker cells
KCa3.1 (SK4) channel was found to play a role in the pacemaker activity of hESC-CMs. The channel was detected in live cell imaging and western blot analysis using Anti-KCa3.1 (SK4) (extracellular) antibody (#ALM-051) (Weisbrod, D. et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, E1685.).
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GIRK channels in bipolar disorder
A link between GIRK channels, GPCRs and bipolar disorder was established. Li+, used to treat the disorder was shown to increase GIRK basal currents which were blocked by Tertiapin-Q (#STT-170), (Farhy Tselnicker, I. et al. (2014) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. In Press.).
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GIRK4 and ventricular repolarization
Immunohistochemistry of mouse heart using Anti-Kir3.4 (GIRK4) antibody (#APC-027) showed that GIRK4 is localized in the outer sarcolemmas and t-tubules (Liang, B. et al. (2014) Cardiovasc. Res. 101, 175.).
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Activation of ALX/FPR2 for treating Sjögren's syndrome
 ALX/FPR2 is expressed in mouse submandibular glands and human minor salivary glands (hMSG), shown in immunohistochemical staining using Anti-Human FPR2/ALX (extracellular) antibody (#AFR-002), (Nelson, J. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 306, C182.).
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CaV2.2 channel imbalance in chronic heart failure
Chronic heart failure (CHF) was shown to have decreased CaV2.2 channel protein levels as shown in immunohistochemical staining of rat parasympathetic cardiac neurons using Anti-CaV2.2 (#ACC-002) antibody (Tu, H. et al. (2014) Am. J. Physiol. 306, C132.).
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Mutation in RYR2 leads to decreased NaV1.5 expression and function
A loss in expression and function was observed for NaV1.5 in atria from RyR2s/s mice. Immunohistochemical staining was done using Anti-NaV1.5 antibody (#ASC-005) (King, J.H. et al. (2013) Cardiovasc. Res. 99, 751.).  
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A role for TREK-2 in suppressing spontaneous pain sensation
By contributing to the resting membrane potential, TREK-2 channels may be important for limiting spontaneous pain sensation. The use of Anti-K2P10.1 (TREK-2) antibody (#APC-055) in immunohistochemical staining of rat DRGs shows that the channel co-localizes with IB4, a small DRG marker (Acosta, C. et al. (2014) J. Neurosci. 34, 1494.).
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GABA(A) α3 Receptor increase in human genetic absence epilepsy syndrome model
Total and cell surface GABA(A) α3 Receptor increases in cortices from heterozygote GABA(A) α1 receptor knock out animals, as shown using Anti-GABA(A) α3 Receptor (extracellular) antibody (#AGA-003), (Zhou, C. et al. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 21458.).
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Kir channels in pacemaker nociceptive circuits
Kir channels were found to reduce conductance in Lamina I pacemaker neurons. Anti-Kir2.1 antibody (#APC-026) and Anti-Kir2.3 antibody (#APC-032) were used to show that their respective channels are indeed expressed in lamina I pacemaker neurons (Li, J. et al. (2013) J. Neurosci. 33, 3352.).
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TRPC6 in podocyte injury
The role of TRPC6 in the pathogenesis of podocyte injury. Data show in part, immunohistochemical staining of human kidney tissue with Anti-TRPC6 antibody (#ACC-017). 
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BKCa and CaV1.2 coupling in vascular myocytes
The membrane excitability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is determined in part by L-type CaV channels and large conductance KCa channels (BKCa). Caveolin-1 was shown to promote BKCa-CaV1.2 coupling and their clustering to regulate VSMC membrane excitability. Expression of KCa1.1 was shown in immunocytochemical staining of mouse mesenteric SMCs using Anti-KCa1.1 (1184-1200) antibody (#APC-107).
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P2X1 receptor in male contraception
The generation of double α1A-adrenoceptor and P2X1 receptor knockout mice causes sympathetical blockage of sperm transport through the vas deferens during the emission phase of ejaculation. P2X1 expression is abolished in double knockout mice as shown in immunohistochemical staining of mouse vas deferens using Anti-P2X1 Receptor antibody (#APR-001).
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KIF5B and NaV1.8 in inflammation
Su, Y.Y. et al. demonstrate that NaV1.8 channel accumulates in peripheral nerves following inflammation. In addition they show that KIF5B, a motor protein is responsible for trafficking NaV1.8 to the plasma membrane under such circumstances. Anti-NaV1.8 antibody (#ASC-016) was used to demonstrate NaV1.8 expression using immunohistochemistry and western blot applications.
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Synaptic plasticity regulation by melanocortin receptor 4
Melanocortin receptor 4 was found regulate synaptic plasticity by regulating GluA1 trafficking via PKA. Part of the work involved immunocytochemical staining of mouse hippocampal neurons using Anti-Melanocortin Receptor 4 (extracellular) antibody (#AMR-024). 
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A role for NaV1.6 during epileptogenesis
Expression of NaV1.6 channel, using Anti-NaV1.6 antibody (#ASC-009) was shown to increase during epileptogenesis in layer II neurons from the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC).
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Mechano-sensitive ion channels and matrix elasticity
Treating cells with Alomone Labs GsMTx-4 (#STG-100), an inhibitor of mechano-sensitive ion channels (ex. TRPC6) reduces valvular myofibroblast differentiation under certain growth conditions.
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Inhibition of muscle regeneration via Angiotensin II 
Ang II acts directly on satellite cells (important for muscle regeneration) via Angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R), to prevent their proliferation and muscle regeneration. AT1R expression was demonstrated using Anti-Angiotensin II Receptor Type-1 (extracellular) antibody (#AAR-011) in FACS and immunocytochemical staining.
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P2X2 and the circadian clock
 Activation of presynaptic P2X receptors in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), namely P2X2, was found to increase the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs. Expression of P2X2 was demonstrated in immunocytochemical staining of rat SCN cultures using Anti-P2X2 Receptor antibody. 
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P2Y2 and cholinergic gene expression
This paper of the week shows that P2Y2 activation in rat cultured cortical neurons induces cholinergic gene expression. Expression of the GPCR was demonstrated using Anti-P2Y2 Receptor antibody (#APR-010). 
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TRPC3 in mitochondria Ca2+ homeostasis
TRPC3 channel was shown to be an important component in regulating Ca2+ uptake and Ca2+ homeostasis in mitochondria. Its role was demostrated using Anti-TRPC3 antibody (#ACC-016) in western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining.
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Downregulation of membrane surface GABA(A) receptors in response to inflammation

TNF-α expression significantly increases in response to inflammatory neurological stress, infection and neurodegenerative diseases.This results in decreased GABAergic neurotransmission in hippocampal neurons. Immunocytochemical staining of living hippocampal neurons using Anti-GABA(A) α1 Receptor (extracellular) antibody (#AGA-001) and Anti-GABA(A) γ2 Receptor (extracellular) antibody (#AGA-005) demostrates that cell surface expression of these receptors significantly decreases in response to TNF-α treatment. 


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ClC-3 and KCa3.1 channels in gliomas
This paper of the week focuses on the expression and co-localization of ClC-3 and KCa3.1 channels in human gliomas using Anti-ClC-3 antibody (#ACL-001) and Anti-KCa3.1 (SK4) (extracellular) antibody (#ALM-051). It appears that the channels may also play a role in the migration of gliomas.
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Alomone Labs anti-TRPV4 antibody cited in Journal of Biological Chemistry
This paper of the week focuses on TRPV4 activation by both PKA and PKC. PKA affects the subcellular localization of the channel as shown using Anti-TRPV4 antibody (#ACC-034), while PKC influences the activity.
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Alomone Labs Anti-P2X7 Receptor labeled and non-labeled antibodies cited in Human Molecular Genetics
This paper of the week focuses on the role P2X7 has in ALS. Alomone Labs Anti-P2X7 Receptor-ATTO-550 (#APR-004-AO) and Anti-P2X7 Receptor (#APR-004) antibodies were used in the study. 
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Alomone Labs Anti-NaV1.1 and Anti-NaVβ2 antibodies cited in The Journal of Neuroscience
This paper of the week focuses deals with the cleavage of NaVβ2 via BACE-1 (Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1), leading to increased NaV1.1 levels, which do not translocate to the cell plasma membrane. Reinforcing that decreased NaV1.1 levels are involved in AD development/progression. This work cites the use of Alomone Labs Anti-NaV1.1 (#ASC-001) and Anti-NaVβ2 (#ASC-007) antibodies. 
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Alomone Labs NaV antibodies cited in Cell
In this paper of the week, we discuss the work of Verret, L. et al. which aims at understanding the mechanisms leading to the cognitive decline and network change in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Western blot analysis of brain lysates from human AD subjects and mouse AD model system using Alomone Labs Anti-NaV1.1, Anti-NaV1.2, Anti-NaV1.3 and Anti-NaV1.6 antibodies, showed that NaV1.1 channel levels are decreased. NaV1.1 may have a role in AD.
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Alomone Labs Anti-KCa2.3 (SK3) (N-term) and Anti-Kir3.1 (GIRK1) antibodies cited in Nature Neuroscience

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Alomone Labs Anti-KV3.1b antibody cited in Journal of Cell Science

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Alomone Labs Anti-P2X2 Receptor antibody cited in PNAS

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Alomone Labs Anti-CaV1.3 and Anti-CaV2.1 antibodies cited in Cell

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Alomone Labs Anti-mGluR5 (extracellular) and Anti-P2X7 Receptor (extracellular) antibodies cited in Science Signaling

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