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Issue No. 13

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Endothelin Receptors

In 1988, a 21-amino acid endothelium-derived bioactive peptide was cloned and named endothelin (ET)1. Later, two other isoforms differing from the original ET-1 in two or six residues, respectively, were cloned and named ET-2 and ET-32. All endothelins bear the common structure with two disulfide …


Novel Neurotrophic Factors

Heparin - binding growth factors have been implicated in central nervous system development, regeneration and pathology. Typical members of this family of secreted cytokines are basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (human FGF-basic), Midkine and Pleiotrophin. human Midkine, a 13 kDa heparin-binding …


ERG K+ Channels

The first member of the Eag family was cloned in Drosophila melanogaster in 19915, 6. The mutants in its gene, ether-a-go-go, were characterized by a leg-shaking behavior when the flies were anesthetized with ether. Since then, several mammalian homologs of Eag channel have been cloned1, 20. …


The Molecular Diversity of TRPC Channels and Related Proteins

The cytosolic Ca2+ serves an intracellular mediator for many extracellular signals. The receptors coupling via heterotrimeric G proteins to different isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC) leads to the breakdown of phosphoinositide to inositol 1,4,5-phosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). After …


Cell Death Modulators for in vitro Apoptosis Models

Until the beginning of 1980s, nerve cell necrosis was thought to responsible for nerve cell death in human brain, stroke ischemia and other neurological diseases1. In the early 70's and 80's a new form of cell death, termed apoptosis, was discovered2,3. About the same time it was recognized that …