Modulator

Issue No. 16

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Subunit Interactions and Channelopathies in CaV Channels

Voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels play a major role in the normal functioning and pathophysiology of neurons and other excitable cells. Their role includes supply of Ca2+ for transmitter release, regulation of excitability by activation of Ca2+-dependent currents and activation of other Ca2+

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The Molecular Diversity of TRP Channels and Related Proteins

TRP channels are a large family (20 genes) of plasma membrane, non-selective cationic channels that are either specifically or ubiquitously expressed in excitable and non excitable cells. These proteins are divided into three main subfamilies on the basis of sequence homology; TRPC, TRPV and TRPM1 …

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HCN Channels – The Pacemaker Channels

The pacemaker current is a hyperpolarization-activated, cation-selective, inward current that modulates the firing rate of cardiac and neuronal pacemaker cells1. The ionic conductance underlying the cardiac pacemaking was identified over 20 years ago and termed If (f for funny)2, 3. At the same …

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The Inward Rectifier K+ Channel ROMK (Kir1.1)

The first of the distinctive family of two transmembrane domain inward rectifier K+ channels to be cloned was ROMK11, now known as Kir1.1 (see2). The name of these channels is based on their location; renal outer medullary K+ channel (ROMK). These channels are involved in electrolyte processing in …

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Cyclic Nucleotide Gated (CNG) Channels

Cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels are non-selective cation channels facilitating the influx of Na+ and Ca2+ ions, with their opening dependent on a cyclic nucleotide binding to the channel complex. Therefore, these channels couple electrical and/or Ca2+ signals to cyclic nucleotide …

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ERG K+ Channels

The ether-a-go-go gene (EAG) family is a relative novel group of K+- channels, which belong to an increasing number of cloned KV channels. Its first member was cloned in 1991 from a mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, and was characterized by a leg-shaking behavior when the fruitflies were …

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The KV4 Channel Subfamily (Shal)

The KV4 subfamily of voltage dependent K+ channels is the mammalian parallel of the Drosophila Shal K+ channel. These currents have “A-type” namely transient profile, which is characterized by fast activation followed by fast inactivation, upon depolarization of the membrane potential. Both …

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