Modulator

Issue No. 18

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Involvement of Ion Channels in Apoptosis

Involvement of ion channels in apoptosis is linked to critical aspects of this complex cellular process such as coordination of the Ca2+ signal, cell shrinkage and mitochondrial integrity. The body of work described below demonstrates the large variety and critical involvement of ion channels in …

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Proneurotrophins: The other half of the neurotrophin story

Although it has been more than fifty years since the neurotrophins were first discovered we are only now starting to appreciate the complexity of their true nature. These compounds lead a fascinating double life: as the proneurotrophin they bind to p75NTR and set in motion diverse signaling …

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GABA(A) Receptor Family

GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its production, release, reuptake and metabolism occur in the nervous system. The GABA transmitter interacts with two major types of receptors: ionotropic GABAA and the metabotropic GABAB receptors. The GABAA

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Endothelins and Urotensin II

Endothelins (ET-1,2,3) and Urotensin II are peptides that are considered to be very powerful vasoconstrictive substances. In humans, endothelins mediate their actions via two specific G-Protein coupled receptors, ETAR and ETBR. Both ETAR and ETBR are present in the heart and in human myocardium at …

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Regulating the Immune Response

The immune response is a tightly regulated process, in which any breach of this strict regulation could lead to pathological phenomena. Lately, the key role of ion channels in immune function has become apparent. In this review we will discuss the latest data concerning the prominent involvement of …

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Acid-Sensing Ion Channels: Structure and Function

In the last two years, increasing evidence has implicated the ASIC channels in an astounding range of physiological functions including pain and taste transduction, learning and memory. In the present review we will summarize some of the recent findings and discuss the potential of the ASIC …

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The KV7 (KCNQ)

The KV7 family of K+ channels is part of the larger voltage-dependent K+ channels superfamily. In a family that comprises five members, four of them have been linked to channelopathies highlighting the functional importance of these channels. Family of voltage-gated K+ channels K+ channels are …

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Ion Channels and Cancer

During the last few years a pivotal role for ion channels involvement in cancer has emerged. In Modulator #17, we reviewed examples of possible roles and interplay between ion channels and cancer. Recently, a large body of data has accumulated on the participation of K+, Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and …

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P2Y Receptor Family

P2Y receptors mediate the actions of the extracellular nucleotides (ATP, ADP, UTP and UDP) and regulate several physiologic responses, among them, cardiac function, platelet aggregation and SMC proliferation.1 The metabotropic P2Y receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) …

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The KV4 Channel Subfamily (Shal)

Transient ("A-Type"), voltage-dependent K+ currents play important roles in both neurons, cardiac myocytes and smooth muscles. The KV4 channels subfamily were found to interact with a number of ancillary subunit proteins which modulate their activity, conferring their “A-Type” characteristics …

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