Modulator

Issue No. 26

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Setting the Pace with NaV1.5 Channels

SCN5A is the gene encoding NaV1.5 voltage-gated Na+ channels. These membrane proteins are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the excitable cell action potential in the heart. They have been extensively studied over the years due to their critical importance in regulation of cardiac …

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Ion Channels and Pain

Pain perception becomes a burden and ceases to be physiologically beneficial when the threat causing the pain is gone and the pain sensations remain. Such pathological, chronic conditions appear due to improper functionality of the ion channels responsible for sensory transmission. This short piece …

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T-Type Ca2+ Channels

T-type Ca2+ channels are at the heart of numerous research topics such as pain and epilepsy. This paper aims at describing various aspects of CaV3 regulation, their role in LTP, cell proliferation, exocytosis and neurotransmitter release and finally, their role in excitation-contraction in afferent …

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In Focus: Labeled α-Bungarotoxin

α-Bungarotoxin is a 74 amino acid peptidyl toxin isolated from the venom of the banded krait snake, Bungarus multicinctus1. α-Bungarotoxin blocks postsynaptic neuromuscular transmission via competitive inhibition of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) with an IC50 of 3.5 x 10-10 M, thereby prevents …

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In Focus: NCX Exchangers

Ca2+ has proven to be a universal signaling molecule in excitable and nonexcitable cells. However, being that its intracellular concentration is 1000 time lower than the extracellular milieu, it is important for the cell to keep this ratio for proper function. NCX, a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is …

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