α-Bungarotoxin-ATTO-488

Long neurotoxin 1, α-Bgtx, α-BuTX
A Fluorescent Conjugate for Sensitive Detection of Neuromuscular Junctions, GABA(A) Receptors, nAChRs, and α-Bungarotoxin Binding Sites
Cat #: B-100-AG
Alternative Name Long neurotoxin 1, α-Bgtx, α-BuTX
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Bioassay Tested
  • Origin Bungarus multicinctus (Many-banded krait).
    Source Modified natural protein
    MW: ~9140 Da.
    Purity: >95%
    Form Lyophilized powder.
    Effective concentration 1 nM - 3 μM.
    Sequence IVCHTTATSPISAVTCPPGENLCYRKMWCDAFCSSRGKVVELGCAATCPSKKPYEEVTCCSTDKCNPHPKQRPG.
    Modifications Disulfide bonds between Cys3-Cys23, Cys16-Cys44, Cys29-Cys33, Cys48-Cys59 and Cys60-Cys65.
    Label ATTO-488. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. ATTO-488 maximum absorption is 501 nm and maximum fluorescence is at 523 nm. The fluorescence is excited most efficiently in the 480 - 515 nm range. This label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC. The extent of labeling is 1-3 molecules of dye per molecule α-Bungarotoxin.
    Activity α-Bungarotoxin blocks postsynaptic neuromuscular transmission via competitive inhibition of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), thereby prevents the depolarizing action on postsynaptic membranes and blocks neuromuscular transmission. Selective for α7 receptors (IC50 value of 1.6 nM) and α3/β4 receptors (IC50 value of >3 μM)1,2. The toxin also blocks GABA(A) receptor subtypes3.
    Shipping and storage Shipped at room temperature. Product as supplied can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C. Avoid exposure to light.
    Solubility Any aqueous buffer. Centrifuge all product preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min). Avoid exposure to light. The product is lyophilized in 0.5 ml conical vial.
    Storage of solutions Up to two weeks at 4°C or three months at -20°C. Avoid exposure to light.
      • Alomone Labs α-Bungarotoxin-ATTO-488 in whole mount staining of mice Gastrocnemius muscle.
        Whole mount staining of mice Gastrocnemius muscle was stained with the neuromuscular junction marker α-Bungarotoxin-ATTO-488 (#B-100-AG), (green) at 1:50 (A) and 1:100 (B) ratios.
        The images were taken using Nikon Epifluorescence microscopy at X100 magnification and are a kind gift from Dr. Eran Perlsson, Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Tel-Aviv University.
        Alomone Labs α-Bungarotoxin-ATTO-488 inhibits α7 nAChR heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
        A. Time course of α7 nAChR current recording. Membrane potential was held at -60 mV and constantly perfused with a solution containing 3 μM PNU-120596. 1 mM ACh was applied for 2 seconds every 90 seconds, in order to stimulate the channel’s current. 200 nM α-Bungarotoxin-ATTO-488 (#B-100-AG) were applied (green) during the ACh application and inhibited channel current. B. Superimposed examples of α7 nicotinic ACh current in the absence (black) and presence (green) of 200 nM α-Bungarotoxin-ATTO-488  (taken from the experiment in A).
      • α-Bungarotoxin isoform A31 is a 74 amino acid peptidyl toxin isolated from the venom of the banded krait snake, Bungarus multicinctus1.

        α-Bungarotoxin blocks postsynaptic neuromuscular transmission via competitive inhibition of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) with an IC50 of 3.5 x 10-10 M, thereby prevents the depolarizing action on postsynaptic membranes and blocks neuromuscular transmission2.

        The toxin is selective for α7 receptors (IC50 value of 1.6 nM) and α3/β4 receptors (IC50 value of >3 µM)3,4.

        α-Bungarotoxin also binds to and blocks a subset of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that contain the GABAAR β3 subunit. In particular, α-Bungarotoxin blocks GABAARs that contain interfaces between adjacent β3 subunits5.

    Target α7, α1/β1/γ/δ nAChR and GABA(A) receptor subtypes
    Net Peptide Content: 100%
    Last update: 17/04/2019

    α-Bungarotoxin-ATTO-488 (#B-100-AG) is a highly pure, natural, and biologically active conjugated peptide toxin.

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    For research purposes only, not for human use