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α-Latrotoxin

α-Latrotoxin-Lt1a, α-LTX-Lt1a, α-LTX
An Inducer of Neurotransmitter Release
Cat #: LSP-130
Alternative Name α-Latrotoxin-Lt1a, α-LTX-Lt1a, α-LTX
Lyophilized Powder yes
  • Bioassay Tested
  • Origin Natural protein isolated from Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Mediterranean black widow spider).
    MW: 130 kDa.
    Purity: >98% (HPLC)
    Effective concentration 150 pM - 1 nM.
    Modifications Highly disulfide bridged proteins, glycosylated.
    CAS No.: 65988-34-3.
    Activity α-Latrotoxin induces exhaustive neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals1. Indirectly activates the ERK MAP kinase pathway.
    References-Activity
    1. Frontali, N. et al. (1976) J. Cell Biol68, 462.
    Shipping and storage Shipped at room temperature. Product as supplied can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Solubility Water. Once dissolved in water, add same volume of glycerol. Centrifuge all product preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Do not shake or vortex.
    Storage of solutions Up to one week at 4°C or six months at -20°C.
    Our bioassay
    • Alomone Labs α-Latrotoxin activates P42/44 MAP kinase by inducing Ca2+ influx in RIN insulinoma cells.
      Alomone Labs α-Latrotoxin activates P42/44 MAP kinase by inducing Ca2+ influx in RIN insulinoma cells.
      Cells were treated for 15 min with 35 mM K+ or 2 nM α-Latrotoxin (#LSP-130) in the presence or absence of 5 mM EGTA. Cell proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and probed with anti-phospho-P42/44 antibodies.
    • Alomone Labs α-Latrotoxin elicits synaptic transmission.
      Alomone Labs α-Latrotoxin elicits synaptic transmission.
      A. Superimposed current traces of post synaptic recording from dissociated hippocampal neurons in culture before (black) and after (red) application of α-Latrotoxin (#LSP-130). B. Individual post synaptic currents are magnified from A.
    References - Scientific background
    1. Sudhof, T.C. et al. (2001) Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24, 933.
    2. Ushkaryov, Y. et al. (2002) Toxicon 40, 1.
    3. Frontali, B. et al. (1976) J. Cell Biol. 68, 462.
    4. Grasso, A. et al. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 439, 406.
    Scientific background

    α-Latrotoxin is a 130 kDa protein toxin from the black widow spider venom and is the only protein in the venom that affects mammals.1,2 Application of the toxin to presynaptic preparations induces, after a delay, a huge increase in spontaneous neurotransmitter release, which can be evaluated by measuring the post synaptic response in the form of miniature end plate potentials. This toxin is widely used to induce and study neurotransmitter release, but the molecular mechanism of its action is not fully determined.

    α-Latrotoxin is isolated according to a modified protocol as described by Frontali3 and Grasso4.

    Net Peptide Content: 100%
    Last update: 16/08/2020

    α-Latrotoxin (#LSP-130) is a highly pure, natural, and biologically active toxin.

    For research purposes only, not for human use

    Applications

    Specifications

    Scientific Background

    Citations

    Citations
    Product citations
    1. Lucas, S.J. et al. (2018) J. Physiol. 596, 1699.
    2. Negro, S. et al. (2017) EMBO Mol. Med. 9, 1000.
    3. Negro, S. et al. (2016) Front. Cell. Neurosci. 10, 134.
    4. Duregotti, E. et al. (2015) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, E497.
    5. Duregotti, E. et al. (2013) Toxicon 64, 20.
    6. Jin, I. et al. (2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 9137.
    7. McGonigal, R. et al. (2010) Brain 133, 1944.
    8. Arunachalam L. et al. (2008) Mol. Biol. Cell 19, 722.
    9. Li G. et al. (2005) J. Neurosci. 25, 10188.
    10. Blair D. H. et al. (2003) Auton. Neurosci. 105, 45.
    11. Bullens R. W. M. et al. (2002) J. Neurosci. 22, 6876.
    12. Jacobs B.C. et al. (2002) Muscle Nerve 25, 549.
    13. Zygmunt P. M. et al. (2002) J. Neurosci22, 4720.
    14. O'Hanlon G. M. et al. (2001) Brain 124, 893.
    15. Brock J. A. et al. (2000) Br. J. Pharmacol131, 1507.
    16. Hogestatt E. D. et al. (2000) Br. J. Pharmacol. 130, 27.
    17. Diefenbach T. J. et al. (1999) J. Neurosci19, 9436.
    18. Plomp J.J. et al. (1999) Ann. Neurol45, 189.
    19. Zygmunt P. M. et al. (1999) Nature 400, 452.
    20. Boehm S. and Huck S. (1998) J. Neurochem71, 2421.
    21. Nakata T. et al. (1998) J. Cell Biol140, 659.
    22. De Potter W.P. et al. (1997) SYNAPSE 25, 44.
    23. Boehm S. and Huck S. (1996) Eur. J. Neurosci8, 1924.
    24. Waterman S. A., and C. A. Maggi (1995) Neuroscience 69, 977.
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