- Peptide KDSATNN*STEPWDGTTNESC, corresponding to amino acid residues 147-166 of human A2BAR with replacement of cysteine 154 (C154) with serine (*S) (Accession P29275). 2nd extracellular loop.
- Western blot analysis of human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia (lanes 1 and 2) cell line, rat brain (lanes 3 and 4) and mouse brain (lanes 5 and 6) lysates:1,3,5. Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:200).
2,4,6. Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Blocking Peptide (#BLP-AR003).
- Expression of Adenosine A2B Receptor in rat lungImmunohistochemical staining of rat lung paraffin embedded sections using Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:50). Staining is present in the respiratory epithelium of the bronchiole (Br) as well as in the pneumonocytes of the alveolar wall (alveoli, (A). Color reaction was obtained with SuperPicture HRP-conjugated polymer (Zymed) followed by DAB. Hematoxilin is used as the counterstain.
- Rat enterochromaffin (EC) cells (1:500), (Damen, R. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e62607.).
- Cell surface detection of Adenosine A2B Receptor by indirect flow cytometry in live intact human THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells:___ Cells.
___ Cells + goat-anti-rabbit-FITC.
___ Cells + Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (2.5μg) + goat-anti-rabbit-FITC.
- Expression of Adenosine A2B Receptor in rat PC12 cellsCell surface detection of Adenosine A2B Receptor in intact living rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. A. Extracellular staining of cells using Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:100) followed by goat anti-rabbit-AlexaFluor-594 secondary antibody. B. Merge of A and live view of the cells.
- Peeters, M.C. et al. (2011) FASEB J. 25, 632.
- Sun, Y. and Huang, P. (2016) Front. Chem. 4, 37.
Extracellular adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that modulates a wide array of biological processes. There are currently four known sub-types of adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B and A3.
The adenosine A2B receptor is a typical class A, G protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane segments, an extracellular N-terminus and an intracellular C-terminus. Adenosine A2BR causes an increase in intracellular cAMP levels by coupling mainly to Gs proteins, resulting in the activation of adenylyl cyclase1 and subsequent activation of PKA and other cAMP effectors such as Epac. In addition, the A2BR couples to Gq and activates the PLC pathway that mediates several crucial functions of A2BR. A2BR also couples to the MAPK and arachidonic acid signaling pathways and regulates membrane ion channels probably through G-protein βγ subunits.
Multiple molecules that bind to A2BR have been identified in an effort to understand the receptor’s function and regulation. NFκB1/p105 is a member of the NFκB family of proteins that perform regulatory functions in diverse biological processes such as inflammation and cell survival and differentiation, as well as in various diseases. Interestingly, Although A2BR activation by adenosine produces pro-inflammatory effects the receptor also binds to specific sites on p105, prevents the poly-ubiquitination and degradation of the p105 protein and inhibits NFκB activation thus reducing inflammation.
A2BR is highly expressed in various types of tumor cells or tissues and promotes tumor-cell proliferation. A2BR was found to be overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma cells and tissues, and inhibition of A2BR blocks the proliferation of colon cancer cells. A2BR has been implicated in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases, renal disease and diabetes2.
Species reactivity key:
Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003) is a highly specific antibody directed against an extracellular epitope of human adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR). The antibody can be used in western blot, immunohistochemistry, live cell imaging and indirect flow cytometry applications. It has been designed to recognize A2BAR from human, rat and mouse samples.
- Human ovarian cancer A1780 and HEY cell lysates.
Sureechatchaiyan, P. et al. (2018) Purinergic Signal. 14, 395.
- Human skin lysate.
Andres, R.M. et al. (2017) J. Invest. Dermatol. 137, 123.
- Rat lung lysate.
Densmore, J.C. et al. (2017) Exp. Lung Res. 43, 38.
- Rat retina cell lysate (1:1000).
Vindeirinho, J. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e67499.
- Rat pancreas sections (1:800).
Hayashi, M. et al. (2016) Eur. J. Physiol. 468, 1171.
- Human cholangiocyte cells.
Lavoie, E.G. et al. (2017) Gene Expres. 17, 327.
- Rat neurospheres.
Benito-Munoz, M. et al. (2016) Glia 64, 1465.
- Mouse lymph node dendritic cells.
Gardner, J.K. et al. (2018) Front. Med. (Lausanne) 5, 337.
- Damen, R. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e62607.