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Anti-GluR2 (GluA2) (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody

AMPA receptor 2, Glutamate receptor 2, Ionotropic glutamate receptor 2, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 2, GRIA2, GluR-B, GluR-K2
Cat #: AGC-005-AG
Alternative Name AMPA receptor 2, Glutamate receptor 2, Ionotropic glutamate receptor 2, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 2, GRIA2, GluR-B, GluR-K2
  • KO Validated
  • Lyophilized Powder yes
    Type: Polyclonal
    Host: Rabbit
    Reactivity: m, r
    Immunogen
    • Peptide NVGNINNDKKDETYR(C), corresponding to amino acid residues 179-193 of rat GluR2 (Accession P19491). Extracellular, N-terminus.
    Accession (Uniprot) Number P19491
    Gene ID 29627
    Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
    Homology Mouse - identical; human - 14/15 amino acid residues identical.
    RRID AB_2039879.
    Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
    Form Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
    Isotype Rabbit IgG.
    Label ATTO-488. Maximum absorption 501 nm; maximum fluorescence 523 nm. The fluorescence is excited most efficiently in the 480 – 515 nm range. This label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC.
    Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Reconstitution 50 µl double distilled water (DDW).
    Antibody concentration after reconstitution 1 mg/ml.
    Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C, protected from the light, for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).
    Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis (unlabeled antibody, #AGC-005), and immunohistochemistry (labeled antibody).
    Applications: if, ih
    May also work in: ic*, lci*
    Immunohistochemistry
    • Expression of AMPA Receptor 2 (GluR2) in mouse brain
      Expression of AMPA Receptor 2 (GluR2) in mouse brain
      Immunohistochemical staining of frozen free-floating of the molecular layer of the mouse cerebellum using Anti-GluR2 (GluA2) (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody (#AGC-005-AG), (1:20). Both dendrites of Purkinje cells (arrows) were stained (green). DAPI counterstain (blue) helps define the layers: granule (G), Purkinje (P), and molecular (M).
    References
    1. Dingledine, R. et al. (1999) Pharmacol. Rev. 51, 7.
    2. Song, I. and Huganir, R.L. (2002) Trends Neurosci. 25, 578.
    3. Malinow, R. and Malenka, R.C. (2002) Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 25, 103.
    Scientific background

    AMPA receptors are members of the glutamate receptor family of ion channels that also include the NMDA and kainate receptors. The three subfamilies are named after the original synthetic agonists that were identified as selective ligands of each subfamily.

    The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subfamily includes four members, AMPA1-AMPA4, that are also known as GluR1-GluR4, respectively.

    The functional AMPA channel is believed to be a tetramer. Most neuronal AMPA receptors are heterotetramers composed of AMPA1 plus AMPA2 or AMPA2 plus AMPA3, although homotetramers are also found.

    AMPA receptors are permeable to Na+, K+, and Ca2+ cations. Permeability to Ca2+ is dependent upon the presence of AMPA2: whenever this subunit is present, the channel is impermeable to Ca2+. Ca2+ permeability of the AMPA2 receptor subunit is determined by the presence of arginine (R), as a result of RNA editing, at a critical site in the pore loop that is occupied by glutamine (Q) in the other AMPA subunits. Since most AMPA2 subunits in the adult brain have undergone RNA editing and most AMPA receptors contain the AMPA2 subunit, most native AMPA receptors are impermeable to Ca2+.

    Gating of AMPA receptors by glutamate is extremely fast and therefore the AMPA receptors mediate most excitatory (depolarizing) currents in the brain during basal neuronal activity. The depolarization caused by the activation of post-synaptic AMPA receptors is necessary for the activation of NMDA receptors that open only in the presence of both glutamate and a depolarized membrane.

    Synaptic strength, defined as the level of post-synaptic depolarization, can be long term (hence the term long term potentiation, LTP) and therefore induces changes in signaling and protein synthesis in the activated neuron. These changes are associated with memory formation and learning.

    Changes in synaptic strength are thought to involve rapid movement of the AMPA receptors in and out of the synapses and a great deal of effort has been focused on understanding the mechanisms that govern AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Application key:

    CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IF- Immunofluorescence, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

    Species reactivity key:

    H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat
    Last update: 16/08/2020

    Anti-GluR2 (GluA2) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-005) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the rat ionotropic glutamate receptor 2. The antibody can be used in western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation applications. It has been designed to recognize GluR2 from human, mouse, and rat samples.

    Anti-GluR2 (GluA2) (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody (#AGC-005-AG) is directly labeled with an ATTO-488 fluorescent dye. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. The ATTO-488 label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC. Anti-GluR2 (GluA2) (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody has been tested in immunohistochemical applications and is specially suited to experiments requiring simultaneous labeling of different markers.

    For research purposes only, not for human use

    Applications

    Specifications

    Scientific Background

    Citations

    Citations
    KO validation citations
    1. Immunohistochemical staining of mouse brain sections with #AGC-005. Tested in GLUA2-/- mice.
      Egbenya, D.L. et al. (2018) Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 92, 93.
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