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Peptide (C)EGISIYTSDNYTEE, corresponding to amino acid residues 2-15 of human CXCR4 (Accession P61073). Extracellular, N-terminus.
Direct flow cytometry analysis of human Jurkat intact live cells:___ Unstained cells.
___ Cells + Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#ACR-014-AG), (5-10 µg/5x105 cells).
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Chemokines are small molecular weight, soluble secreted proteins that bind and activate their respective G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), chemokine receptors in order to evoke a cellular response resulting in migration or chemotaxis1.
The chemokine system involves more than 40 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors. The receptors are designated CXCR1-5, CCR1-11, XCR1 and CX3CR1, based on their specific ligand preference2.
Chemokine receptors are present on many different cell types. They were initially detected on leukocytes, where they were found to play an important role in the migration of these cells to inflammation sites3.
CXCR4 was originally identified as an orphan receptor, and soon gained much attention when it was discovered as a coreceptor for HIV-14. Besides from being involved in HIV-1 infection/progression, CXCR4 is found to be upregulated in many different cancers/tumors and has evolved to become a target for the development of antagonists5. CXCL12 (SDF-1α) is the sole ligand for CXCR4. Following binding of its ligand, CXCR4 undergoes dimerization and activates Gi G-proteins6,7. However downstream activation through CXCR4 could also occur through other G-proteins and non-G-proteins5. The down regulation of the CXCR4 receptor is initiated by phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic tail, which is followed by the binding of arrestin. The receptor is then internalized through endocytosis and degraded in the lysosome. Downregulation of CXCR4 could also occur through the stimulation of other GPCRs8.
The distribution of CXCR4 is quite broad and involves the central nervous system (CNS)9, spleen10, testes11, hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells2.
Species reactivity key:
Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-014) is a highly specific antibody directed against an extracellular epitope of the human CXCR4 chemokine receptor. The antibody can be used for western blot, immunohistochemistry and indirect flow cytometry applications. It has been designed to recognize CXCR4 from rat, mouse and human samples.
Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#ACR-014-AG) is directly labeled with an ATTO-488 fluorescent dye. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. The ATTO-488 label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC. Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody is especially suited for experiments requiring simultaneous labeling of different markers.
- Anti-Human CCR5 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-025)
- Anti-CCR7 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-027)
- Anti-CCR9 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-029)
- Anti-Human CXCR1 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-011)
- Anti-Human CXCR2 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-012)
- Anti-Human CXCR2 (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#ACR-012-AG)
- Anti-Human CXCR5 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-015)
- Anti-CXCR7 (ACKR3) (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-037)
- Anti-CXCR7 (ACKR3) (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#ACR-037-AG)