- Peptide (C)KQFKTSYEKRSFK, corresponding to amino acids 188-200 of rat EAAT1 (Accession P24942). 2nd extracellular loop.
- Cell surface detection of EAAT1 in live intact human MEG-01 megakaryoblastic leukemia cells:___ Cells.
___ Cells + Rabbit IgG isotype control-FITC.
___ Cells + Anti-EAAT1 (GLAST) (extracellular)-FITC Antibody (#AGC-021-F), (5 µg).
Glutamate transporters play important roles in the termination of excitatory neurotransmission and in providing cells with glutamate for metabolic purposes.
SLC1A3 (EAAT1) belongs to The SLC1 protein family which contains a range of human and prokaryotic glutamate and aspartate transporters. EAAT1 transports the acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate against a concentration gradient generating a net movement of substrate and charge across the membrane. Glutamate transport by EAAT1 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions and one H+ ion, and the counter transport of one K+ ion1.
EAAT1 is mainly expressed in astrocytes but can also be found in oligodendrocytes. EAAT1, together with EAAT2, are responsible for the bulk of glutamate uptake in the brain. They have several important roles, including the termination of the synaptic effects of glutamate, prevention of potentially toxic accumulation of extracellular glutamate, supply of glutamate to the astrocyte for synthesis of glutamine, which is involved in ammonia detoxification and in the glutamine-glutamate cycle and signaling of the metabolic needs of nearby neurons and activation of glycolysis in astrocytes2.
EAAT1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of episodic ataxia, a rare neurological disorder characterized by neonatal muscle stiffness and an exaggerated startle reflex induced by noise or touch3.