Anti-Human PAR2/F2RL1 (extracellular) Antibody

Protease-activated receptor-2, PAR-2, Thrombin receptor-like 1, Coagulation factor II receptor-like 1, GPR11
  • New
Cat #: APR-035
Alternative Name Protease-activated receptor-2, PAR-2, Thrombin receptor-like 1, Coagulation factor II receptor-like 1, GPR11
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Antigen Incl.
  • Type: Polyclonal
    Host: Rabbit
    Reactivity: h
    Immunogen
    • Peptide (C)GKVDGTSHVTGKG, corresponding to amino acid residues 40 - 52 of human PAR2/F2RL1 (Accession P55085). Extracellular, N-terminus.
    • Anti-Human PAR2/F2RL1 (extracellular) Antibody
    Accession (Uniprot) Number P55085
    Gene ID 2150
    Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
    Homology Human only.
    Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
    Form Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
    Isotype Rabbit IgG
    Specificity The antibody will not recognize rat or mouse PAR2.
    Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Reconstitution 25 µl, 50 µl or 0.2 ml double distilled water (DDW), depending on the sample size.
    Antibody concentration after reconstitution 0.8 mg/ml.
    Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Negative control antigen storage before reconstitution Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for two weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Negative control antigen reconstitution 100 µl double distilled water (DDW).
    Negative control antigen storage after reconstitution -20°C.
    Preadsorption Control 1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.
    Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis.
    Applications: ifc, wb
    May also work in: ic*, ih*, ip*, lci*
    Western blot
    • Anti-Human PAR2/F2RL1 (extracellular) Antibody
      Western blot analysis of human HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line lysate (lanes 1 and 6), human PANC-1 pancreatic carcinoma cell line lysate (lanes 2 and 7), human THP-1 monocytic leukemia cell line lysate (lanes 3 and 8), human Jurkat T-cell leukemia cell line lysate (lanes 4 and 9) and human MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell line lysate (lanes 5 and 10):
      1-5. Anti-Human PAR2/F2RL1 (extracellular) Antibody (#APR-035), (1:200).
      6-10. Anti-Human PAR2/F2RL1 (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with the negative control antigen.
    Indirect flow cytometry
    • Anti-Human PAR2/F2RL1 (extracellular) Antibody
      Cell surface detection of PAR2 in live intact human THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells:
      ___ Cells.
      ___ Cells + goat-anti-rabbit-FITC.
      ___ Cells + Anti-Human PAR2/F2RL1 (extracellular) Antibody (#APR-035), (2.5 µg) + goat-anti-rabbit-FITC.
    References
    1. MacFarlane, S.R. et al. (2001) Pharmacol. Rev. 53, 245.
    2. Hollenberg, M.D. et al. (2002) Pharmacol. Rev. 54, 203.
    3. Ossovskaya, V.S. et al. (2004) Physiol. Rev. 84, 579.
    Scientific background

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) belongs to a family of four G protein-coupled receptors (PAR1-4) that are activated as a result of proteolytic cleavage by certain serine proteases, hence their name. In this novel modality of activation, a specific protease cleaves the PAR receptor within a defined sequence in its extracellular N-terminal domain. This results in the creation of a new N-terminal tethered ligand, which subsequently binds to a site in the second extracellular loop of the same receptor. This binding results in the coupling of the receptor to G proteins and in the activation of several signal transduction pathways1-3.

    Different PARs are activated by different proteases. Hence, PAR-1 is activated by thrombin, as are PAR-3 and PAR-4.1-3 PAR-2 is the only PAR family receptor that is activated by trypsin and not by thrombin. PAR-2 can be also cleaved and activated by other proteases such as tryptase, membrane-type serine protease 1, protease 3, and others1-3.

    The intramolecular nature of PAR activation and the continuous presence of the tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away imply the existence of several mechanisms for the rapid termination of PAR signaling. Indeed, following receptor activation, there is rapid phosphorylation of the C-terminal end of the receptor, followed by receptor internalization and degradation. In addition, several proteases can cleave away the tethered ligand, thereby “disarming” the PAR1-3.

    PAR-2-mediated intracellular signaling has not been clearly elucidated, but activators of PAR-2 induce generation of IP3 and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Activation of the ERK1/2 and NF-kB intracellular pathways following PAR-2 activation has been also described1-3.

    Tissue distribution of PAR-2 is wide with the highest expression levels found in pancreas, small intestine, liver and kidney. In addition, PAR-2 expression was observed in dorsal root ganglion neurons, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.

    The physiological role of PAR-2 is not clearly understood, however studies using PAR-2 knockout mice have suggested roles in the cardiovascular, pulmonary and gastrointestinal systems. Several studies suggest that PAR-2 plays a central role in inflammatory diseases and nociceptive pain transduction; hence PAR-2 blockers have been proposed to be useful in the therapeutic control of inflammation and pain1-3.

    Application key:

    CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IF- Immunofluorescence, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

    Species reactivity key:

    H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat

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    Last update: 18/06/2020

    Anti-Human PAR2/F2RL1 (extracellular) Antibody (#APR-035) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the human protein. The antibody can be used in western blot and indirect live cell flow cytometry. It has been designed to recognize PAR2 from human only.

    For research purposes only, not for human use
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