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Anti-Human PAR1 (F2R) (extracellular)-FITC Antibody

Protease-activated receptor-1, PAR-1, Thrombin receptor, Coagulation factor II receptor, CF2R

Cat #: APR-031-F
Alternative Name Protease-activated receptor-1, PAR-1, Thrombin receptor, Coagulation factor II receptor, CF2R
Lyophilized Powder yes
Type: Polyclonal
Host: Rabbit
Reactivity: h
Immunogen
  • Peptide (C)KNESGLTEYRLVSINK, corresponding to amino acid residues 61-76 of human PAR-1 (Accession P25116). Extracellular, N terminal.
Accession (Uniprot) Number P25116
Gene ID 2149
Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
Homology Monkey - identical.
RRID AB_2756759.
Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
Form Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
Isotype Rabbit IgG.
Specificity Won’t recognize PAR-1 from mouse and rat samples.
Label Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC).
Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
Reconstitution 50 μl double distilled water (DDW).
Antibody concentration after reconstitution 1 mg/ml.
Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C, protected from the light, for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).
Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis (unlabeled antibody, #APR-031), and direct flow cytometry (labeled antibody).
Applications: fc
May also work in: ic*, lci*
Direct flow cytometry
  • Cell surface detection of PAR-1 in live intact human MEG-01 megakaryoblastic leukemia cells:
    Cell surface detection of PAR-1 in live intact human MEG-01 megakaryoblastic leukemia cells:
    ___ Cells.
    ___ Cells + rabbit IgG isotype control-FITC
    ___ Cells + Anti-Human PAR1 (F2R) (extracellular)-FITC Antibody (#APR-031-F), (5 µg).
References
  1. MacFarlane, S.R. et al. (2001) Pharmacol. Rev. 53, 245.
  2. Hollenberg, M.D. et al. (2002) Pharmacol. Rev. 54, 203.
  3. Ossovskaya, V.S. et al. (2004) Physiol. Rev. 84, 579.
  4. Arora, P. et al. (2007) J. Cell Sci. 120, 921.
Scientific background

Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) belongs to a family of four G protein-coupled receptors (PAR1-4) that are activated as a result of proteolytic cleavage by certain serine proteases, hence their name. In this novel modality of activation, a specific protease cleaves the PAR receptor within a defined sequence in its extracellular N-terminal domain. This results in the creation of a new N-terminal tethered ligand, which subsequently binds to a site in the second extracellular loop of the same receptor. This binding results in the coupling of the receptor to G proteins and in the activation of several signal transduction pathways.1-3

Different PARs are activated by different proteases. Hence, PAR-1 is activated by thrombin (and is in fact also known as the thrombin receptor), as are PAR-3 and PAR-4, while PAR-2 is activated by trypsin.1-3 PAR-1 can be also cleaved and activated by other proteases such as plasmin, Factor Xa, cathepsin G, and others.

The intramolecular nature of PAR activation and the continuous presence of the tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away imply the existence of several mechanisms for the rapid termination of PAR signaling. Indeed, following receptor activation, there is rapid phosphorylation of the C-terminal end of the receptor, followed by receptor internalization and degradation. In addition, several proteases can cleave away the tethered ligand, thereby “disarming” the PAR.1-3

PAR-1 signals through several G proteins including Gαq, Gαi, and Gα12/13, resulting in the activation of several transduction pathways including intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, Rho and Rac signaling, and MAPK activation.1-3

PAR-1 is expressed in several cell types including platelets, leukocytes, vascular endothelial cells, gastrointestinal epithelial cells, myocytes, and neurons. The best studied physiological function of PAR-1 is its involvement in the coagulation cascade. Thrombin, the preeminent ligand of PAR-1, activates the receptor on the surface of platelets, hence inducing platelet aggregation, granular secretion, and procoagulant activity. PAR-1 also plays a crucial role in vascular ontogenesis. Accordingly, PAR-1 knockout mice show bleeding at multiple sites and usually die at mid-gestation.1-3

PAR-1 also plays important roles in tumor growth and metastasis. PAR-1 is upregulated in several human cancers as are several proteases such as plasmin and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) that act as PAR-1 ligands, thereby creating an autocrine loop. PAR-1 activation in cancer cells transmits mitogenic signals through the activation of the erk1/2 pathway and is involved in tumor spread via its pro-angiogenic activity.4

Application key:

CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IF- Immunofluorescence, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

Species reactivity key:

H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat
Last update: 02/03/2021

Anti-Human PAR1 (F2R) (extracellular) Antibody (#APR-031) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of human protease-activated receptor-1. The antibody can be used in western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and live cell flow cytometry applications. It has been designed to recognize PAR-1 from human samples.

Anti-Human PAR1 (F2R) (extracellular)-FITC Antibody (#APR-031-F) is directly conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). This labeled antibody can be used in immunofluorescent applications such as direct live cell flow cytometry.

For research purposes only, not for human use

Applications

Specifications

Scientific Background

Citations

Citations
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