- GST fusion protein with the sequence DSLSQVSQFMACEELPPGAPELPQEGPTRRLSLPGQLGALTSQPLHRHGSDPGS, corresponding to amino acid residues 1106-1159 of human KV11.1 (HERG) (Accession Q12809). Intracellular, C-terminus.
- Western blot analysis of KV11.1 (HERG)-expressing HEK-293 cells:1. Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) Antibody (#APC-062), (1:400).
2. Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) Antibody, preincubated with KCNH2/HERG Blocking Peptide (#BLP-PC062).
- Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) (Dennis, A.T. et al. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 34413.).
- Immunoprecipitation of KV11.1-expressing HEK-293 cells:1. Cell lysate.
2. Cell lysate + protein A beads + Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) Antibody (#APC-062).
3. Cell lysate + protein A beads + Anti-KCNH2 (erg1) Antibody (#APC-016).
4. Cell lysate + protein A beads + Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) (extracellular) Antibody (#APC-109).
5. Cell lysate + protein A beads + pre-immune rabbit serum.
Red arrow indicates KV11.1 while the black arrow shows the IgG heavy chain.
Immunoblot was performed with the Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) Antibody.
- Mouse frozen heart sections (1:300) (Teng, G.Q. et al. (2008) Circ. Res. 103, 1483.).
- Expression of KV11.1 (HERG) in HEK-293 transfected cellsImmunocytochemical staining of fixed and permeabilized KV11.1 transfected HEK-293 cells. Cells were stained with Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) Antibody (#APC-062), followed by goat anti-rabbit-AlexaFluor-555 secondary antibody (Red). Almost all transfected cells are stained positive for the KV11.1. Arrows indicate cells that do not express the channel.
The KV11.1 (HERG) channel is a member of the ether-a-go-go (EAG) subfamily of voltage-dependent K+ channels that includes the related proteins KV11.2 and KV11.3 (erg2 and erg3). KV11.1 possesses the signature structure of the voltage-dependent K+ channels: six membrane-spanning domains and intracellular N- and C-termini.
The KV11.1 current is characterized by strong inward rectification with slow activation and very rapid inactivation kinetics. The channel is expressed in the brain and heart (where it underlies the IKr current) and has a central role in mediating repolarization of action potentials.1,2
Mutations in the KV11.1 channel cause inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) or abnormalities in the repolarization of the heart that are associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. All the identified KV11.1 mutations produce loss of function of the channel via several cellular mechanisms ranging from alterations of gating properties, alterations of channel permeability/selectivity and alterations in intracellular channel trafficking that decreases the number of channels that reach the cell membrane.1,2
Recently, drug-induced forms of LQTS have been reported for a wide range of non-cardiac drugs including antihistamines, psychoactive agents and antimicrobials. All these drugs potently block the KV11.1 channel as an unintended side effect, prompting regulatory drug agencies to issue recommendations for the testing of new drugs for their potential KV11.1 blocking effect.
In addition, KV11.1 expression was found to be upregulated in several tumor cell lines of different histogenesis, suggesting that it confers the cells some advantage in cell proliferation. Indeed, in several studies it has been shown that inhibition of the KV11.1 current leads to a decrease in tumor cell proliferation.3
Several toxins from scorpion venoms are potent blockers (affecting the channels in the nanomolar range) of KV11.1 channels. Among these the most potent and selective are Ergtoxin-1 (16 nM)4 and BeKM-1 (3 nM).5 In addition, the methanesulfonanilide class III antiarrhythmic agent E-4031 also blocks KV11.1 channel in the nanomolar range (7.7 nM).6
Species reactivity key:
Alomone Labs is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an intracellular epitope of the human KV11.1 channel. Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) Antibody (#APC-062) can be used in western blot, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical applications. It has been designed to recognize KV11.1 from human, rat, and mouse samples.
- Mouse frozen heart sections (1:300).
Teng, G.Q. et al. (2008) Circ. Res. 103, 1483.
- HEK 293 cells transfected with hERG.
Varkevisser, R. et al. (2013) Br. J. Pharmacol. 169, 1322.
- David, J.P. et al. (2013) Traffic 14, 399.
- Organ-Darling, L.E. et al. (2013) Am. J. Physiol. 304, H589.
- Aidery, P. et al. (2012) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 418, 830.
- Dennis, A.T. et al. (2012) Mol. Pharmacol. 81, 198.
- Albesa, M. et al. (2011) J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 51, 90.
- Nalos, L. et al. (2011) Eur. J. Pharmacol. 652, 96.
- Ganapathi, S.B. et al. (2010) Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 299, C74.
- Hayashi, K. et al. (2010) Heart Rhythm. 7, 973.
- Ren, X.Q. et al. (2010) Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 299, H1525.
- Nanduri, J. et al. (2009) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 388, 212.
- Huo, J. et al. (2008) Pflugers Arch 456, 917.
- Nanduri, J. et al. (2008) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com. 373, 309.
- Roy, J. et al. (2008) Oncol. Rep. 19, 1511.
- Nakajima, T. et al. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 5506.
- Sun, H. et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 5877.
- Chapman, H. et al. (2005) J. Cell Sci. 118, 5325.
- Rossenbacker, T. et al. (2005) Circulation 111, 961.
- Ficker, E. et al. (2003) Circ. Res. 92, 87.
- Shoeb, F. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 2503.
- Zicha, S. et al. (2003) Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285, H1641.
- Finley, M. R. et al. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283, 126.
- Paulussen, A. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 48610.
- Pillozzi, S. et al. (2002) Leukemia 16, 1791.
- Smith, G.A. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 18528.
- Anti-KCNH2 (erg1) Antibody (#APC-016). This antibody recognizes a different epitope and thus can be used as a control for detecting KV11.1 (KCNH2).
- Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) (extracellular) Antibody (#APC-109). This antibody recognizes a different epitope and thus can also be used as a control for detecting KV11.1 (KCNH2).
- Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) (extracellular)-FITC Antibody (#APC-109-F). A fluorescent labeled primary antibody. It can be used in multiplex staining studies in conjunction with any of our antibodies raised in rabbit.
- Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) (extracellular) Antibody (#APC-109). This antibody recognizes an extracellular epitope and be used to detect KV11.1 (KCNH2) in live cells.
- Anti-KCNH2 (HERG) (extracellular)-FITC Antibody (#APC-109-F). This antibody is the conjugated version of #APC-109 and can be used to detect KV11.1 (KCNH2) in live cells.
Explorer kits & Research packs
- hERG and hERG-Related Channel Antibody Explorer Kit (#AK-222)
- hERG Related Channel Modulator Explorer Kit (#EK-109)
- Cardiac KV Channel Antibody Explorer Kit (#AK-320)
- Long QT Syndrome-Related Antibody Explorer Kit (#AK-350)
- pH-Sensitive KV Channel Antibody Explorer Kit (#AK-470)
- Pacemaker Cell Marker Antibody Kit (#AK-620)