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Brefeldin A

BFA, Cyanein, Ascotoxin, Decumbin, NSC244390, Nectrolide, Synergisidin
Protein Synthesis and Transport Inhibitor
Cat #: B-275
Alternative Name BFA, Cyanein, Ascotoxin, Decumbin, NSC244390, Nectrolide, Synergisidin
Lyophilized Powder yes
  • Bioassay Tested
  • Origin Eupenicillium brefeldianum.
    Source Natural
    MW: 280.4
    Purity: >99%
    Effective concentration 1-100 µM.
    Structure
    Chemical name γ-4-Dihdyroxy-2-(6-hydroxy-1- heptenyl)-4-cyclopentanecrotonic acid.
    Molecular formula C16H24O4.
    CAS No.: 20350-15-6.
    Activity Brefeldin A is an antiviral antibiotic which inhibits protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the golgi by disassembling the golgi1,2. It can also induce apoptosis in some cell types3. Brefeldein A is widely used as an enhancer of intracellular cytokine accumulation and neurodegenerative disease inducer in cell culture models4,5.
    References-Activity
    1. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. et al. (1989) Cell 56, 801.
    2. Klausner, R.D. et al. (1992) J. Cell. Biol116, 1071.
    3. Shao, R.G. et al. (1996) Exp. Cell Res227, 190.
    4. Tamura, G. et al. (1968) J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 21, 160.
    5. Pommepuy, I. et al. (2003) Oncology 64, 459.
    Shipping and storage Shipped at room temperature. Product as supplied can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Solubility DMSO, ethanol, methanol, dichloromethane. Centrifuge all product preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Storage of solutions Up to two weeks at 4°C or six months at -20°C.
    Our bioassay
    • Alomone Labs Brefaldin A inhibits the assembly of the Golgi complex in HeLa cells.
      Alomone Labs Brefaldin A inhibits the assembly of the Golgi complex in HeLa cells.
      Cells were treated with or without 40 µg Brefeldin A (#B-275) for 1 h. The upper and lower right panels show that Golgin (red), a golgi marker, is disassembled upon treatment. DAPI is used as the counterstain (blue).
    • Alomone Labs Brefeldin A inhibits the assembly of the Golgi complex in 3T3-L1 cells.
      Alomone Labs Brefeldin A inhibits the assembly of the Golgi complex in 3T3-L1 cells.
      Cells were treated without (A) or with (B) 40 µg/ml Brefeldin A (#B-275) for 1 h. The figure represents superposition of triple labeling using anti-manosidase II, a Golgi apparatus marker (red), DAPI for nuclear staining (blue) and DIOC16 for cell membrane staining (green).
    References - Scientific background
    1. Herri, E. et al. (1963) Helv. Chim. Acta46, 1235.
    2. Handschin, U. et al. (1968) Helv. Chim. Acta51, 1943.
    3. Tamura, G. et al. (1968) J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 21, 160.
    4. Oda, K. et al. (1987) FEBS Lett214, 135.
    5. Takatsuki, A. et al. (1985) Agric. Biol. Chem49, 899.
    6. Fujiwara, T. (1988) J. Biol. Chem263, 18545.
    7. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. et al. (1989) Cell 56, 801.
    8. Klausner, R.D. et al. (1992) J. Cell. Biol116, 1071.
    9. Misumi, Y. et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem261, 11398.
    10. Betina, V. (1992) Folia Microbiol. (Praha) 37, 3.
    11. Pommepuy, I. et al. (2003) Oncology 64, 459.
    12. Salles F.T. et al. (2004) Oral Oncol40, 585.
    13. Kikuchi, S. et al. (2004) J. Neurosci. Res71, 591.
    Scientific background

    Brefeldin A (BFA)1 is a macrocyclic lactone synthesized from palmitate (C16) by a variety of fungi. It was initially isolated and characterized in the 1960s as an antiviral antibiotic.2,3 In the late 1980s it was found to act as a very powerful inhibitor of intracellular protein transport.4-6 BFA specifically and reversibly blocks protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus in many cell types and species.7,8 These effects are generally accompanied by distinct structural changes expressed in apparent collapse of the Golgi stacks and its redistribution into the ER as well as into the nuclear envelope,6,7 which leads to inhibition of protein secretion, vesicular assembly and antigen presentation.3-9 A large body of evidence demonstrates that BFA inhibits the whole cell membrane traffic by its ability to inhibit binding of regulatory coat proteins to their target organelles. In this way, BFA deregulates membrane traffic throughout the central vacuolar system of the cell.8

    BFA was also shown to act as a mitosis inhibitor in plant cells, and as a cancerostatic and apoptosis inducer in animal cells.6-10

    BFA is very effective for enhancing accumulation of intracellular cytokines and it has relatively low toxicity (LD50 in mice (intraperitoneal injection) >200 mg/kg).10 Due to its peculiar activity, BFA is used as an inducer of pathogenesis in models of neurodegenerative diseases.10-13

    Last update: 16/08/2020

    Brefeldin A (#B-275) is a highly pure, natural, and biologically active compound.

    For research purposes only, not for human use

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    Scientific Background

    Citations

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