Modulator

Issue No. 14

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Molecular Diversity of P2 Receptors

ATP is released into the extracellular milieu upon cell and tissue damage, secretory exocytosis or activation of plasma membrane transporters. Many types of excitatory or non-excitatory cells maintain specific receptors to ATP or other nucleotides on their surface. Nucleotide receptors, also named …

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Dendrotoxins: Powerful Blockers of Voltage-Gated K+ Channels

Dendrotoxins are a family of 7 kDa. homologous polypeptides isolated from both green and black mamba venoms (Dendroaspis sp.)1-3. They contain 57-61 amino acid residues in a single chain, crosslinked by three disulfide bridges. Several Dendrotoxins have been isolated and their amino acid sequences …

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GABAA receptors

GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the essential inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. It interacts with three kinds of receptors: Class A1, B2 and C3. While GABAAR and GABACR are ligand-gated Cl- channels, GABABR can activate other channels via G protein. The binding of GABA …

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Voltage-Gated Cl Channel Family

The voltage-gated Cl- channel (CLC) family in mammals contains at least nine different genes, encoding the Cl- channels CLC-Ka (CLC-K1), CLC-Kb (CLC-K2), and CLC-1 to CLC-7. All CLC channels bear the common transmembrane topology, with intracellular N- and C-termini and 10-12 TM domains. The …

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