The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a receptor for glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). As an ionotropic receptor, the NMDA glutamate receptor regulates a ligand-gated ion channel.
NMDA receptors are divided into various subtypes, each comprising two N1 subunits and either two N2 or two N3 subunits. Of these, the N1/N2 subtype is of primary physiological importance.
The NMDA glutamate receptor comprises an extracellular ligand-binding domain and a transmembrane ion channel. The binding of a ligand results in the closure of the ligand-binding domain, which in turn leads to the opening of the transmembrane ion channel. Although the transmembrane ion channel is nonspecific for positively charged ions, due to the channel’s chemical properties and ion concentrations outside the cell, calcium ions typically pass through the channel. The regulation of the transmembrane ion channel is complex and allows for precise control of ion permeability under normal conditions. However, disruptions to this regulation can be lethal to the cell.
Approximately 80% of cortical neurons are known to contain NMDA glutamate receptors, with a preference for expression in pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, these receptors are also found in astrocytes, glial cells that were once thought to be solely responsible for supporting neurons. Within the hippocampus, NMDA glutamate receptors have a significant impact on memory formation. NMDA receptors are also present in the peripheral nervous system, and their subunits are expressed in the kidney and cardiovascular system of rats, although their functions in these areas remain unclear.
The significance of NMDA glutamate receptors lies in their crucial involvement in long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity, which underpins memory formation. The NMDA receptor is also implicated in several disease states, including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, major depressive disorder, tinnitus, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, heavy metal poisoning, and migraines. The involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors in these conditions is due to their role in excitotoxicity and synaptic plasticity, and treatments for these conditions often involve NMDA receptor antagonists or other therapies, including NMDA receptor antibodies, aimed at regulating their function.
NMDA receptor agonists activate or enhance the activity of NMDA glutamate receptors. Researchers utilize NMDA receptor agonists to investigate the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity. By activating NMDA glutamate receptors, NMDA receptor agonists can induce synaptic plasticity, enhance long-term potentiation, and improve learning and memory processes. NMDA receptor agonists can also be used to explore the therapeutic potential of enhancing NMDA glutamate receptor activity in neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.
NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit or block the activity of NMDA glutamate receptors. By inhibiting NMDA glutamate receptors, NMDA receptor antagonists interfere with glutamate signaling and modulate synaptic transmission. NMDA receptor antagonists can induce a state of NMDA receptor hypofunction, leading to altered neuronal activity, dissociative effects, and changes in consciousness. NMDA receptor antagonists are used by researchers to investigate the role of NMDA glutamate receptors in various physiological and pathological processes, including cognition, behavior, synaptic plasticity, and neurodegenerative diseases.
NMDA receptor antibodies are used in research to enable precise and specific detection, localization, and functional analysis of NMDA glutamate receptors. NMDA receptor antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to a specific part of the NMDA glutamate receptor. NMDA receptor antibodies are often conjugated with a detectable molecule, enabling visualization and analysis. Techniques utilizing NMDA receptor antibodies provide valuable insights into the expression patterns, distribution, interactions, and dynamics of NMDA glutamate receptors, leading to a better understanding of their role in neuronal function and neurological disorders.
Alomone labs offers a range of NMDA glutamate receptor products, including NMDA receptor agonists, antagonists, and antibodies, providing the necessary tools for NMDA glutamate receptor research.
|Anti-NMDAR1 (GluN1) (extracellular) | Rabbit | Polyclonal | #AGC-001|
|Anti-NMDAR1 (GluN1) (extracellular) | Guinea pig | Polyclonal | #AGC-001-GP|
|Anti-NMDAR2A (GluN2A) (extracellular) | Rabbit | Polyclonal | #AGC-002|
|Anti-NMDAR2B (GluN2B) (extracellular) | Rabbit | Polyclonal | #AGC-003|
|Anti-NMDAR2C (GRIN2C) (extracellular) | Rabbit | Polyclonal | #AGC-018|
|Anti-NMDAR2D (GRIN2D) (extracellular) | Rabbit | Polyclonal | #AGC-020|
|Anti-NMDAR3A (GRIN3A) (extracellular) | Rabbit | Polyclonal | #AGC-030|
|Anti-NMDAR3B (GRIN3B) (extracellular) | Rabbit | Polyclonal | #AGC-031|
|IEM-1921 | Blocker | GRIN2A | #I-180|
|cis-ACBD | Agonist | GRIN2A | #A-281|
|trans-ACBD | Agonist | GRIN2A | #A-280|
|(RS)-(Tetrazol-5-yl)glycine | Agonist | GRIN2A | #T-205|
|L-701,324 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #L-195|
|5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #D-190|
|5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid monohydrate | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #D-191|
|7-Chlorokynurenic acid | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #C-285|
|7-Chlorokynurenic acid sodium salt | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #C-286|
|α-Asarone | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #A-260|
|Arcaine sulfate | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #A-285|
|CGP-37849 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #C-325|
|CGS 19755 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #C-310|
|Clobenpropit dihydrobromide | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #C-345|
|CNS-1102 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #C-305|
|(±)-CPP | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #C-175|
|D-AP5 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #D-145|
|DL-AP5 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #D-140|
|DL-AP7 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #D-200|
|Kynurenic acid | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #K-110|
|L-689,560 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #L-225|
|(+)-MK 801 maleate | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #M-230|
|MPX-004 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #M-280|
|Ro 8-4304 hydrochloride | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #R-165|
|Ro 25-6981 maleate | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #R-180|
|TCN 201 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #T-190|
|TCN 213 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #T-215|
|ZD 9379 | Antagonist | GRIN2A | #Z-120|
|CIQ | Agonist | GRIN2C | #C-275|
|NMDA | Agonist | GRIN2C | #N-170|
|DQP-1105 | Antagonist | GRIN2C | #D-210|
|Eliprodil | Antagonist | GRIN2C | #E-155|
|QNZ 46 | Antagonist | GRIN2C | #Q-270|