- Peptide (C)RAESDEARR(S)YNDP, corresponding to amino acid residues 200-214 of rat ADRB1 (Accession P18090). 2nd extracellular loop.
- Expression of β1-Adrenoceptor in mouse cerebellumImmunohistochemical staining of mouse cerebellum using Anti-β1-Adrenergic Receptor (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#AAR-023-AG), (1:60). β1-adrenoceptor staining (green) appears in granule cells and in the Purkinje cell layer. B. Nuclei staining using DAPI as the counterstain. C. Merged image of panels A and B.
β-Adrenergic receptors control key physiological functions through signals encoded by catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters to activate intracellular signaling pathways. These receptors belong to the amine receptor cluster of rhodopsin-like family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs).
The β1 adrenergic receptor (β1AR) is comprised of an extracellular N-terminus, seven membrane spanning loops (TM1-7) and an intracellular C-terminus1.
β1AR couples to the stimulatory G protein Gs and thereby activates adenylyl cyclase. β1AR also couples to the inhibitory G protein Gi and can induce G protein independent signaling. Differential activation of these pathways can be modulated by different ligands2.
β1AR is widely expressed in cardiac myocytes and is regulated by the microRNA (miRNA) let-7e. Following acute myocardial infraction (AMI) in rats, expression of β1AR is significantly up-regulated while the expression of miRNA let-7a (as well as miRNAs c, d, e and i) is notably down-regulated 6 and 24 hours post myocardial infarction. Blocking the up-regulation of β1AR can serve as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of AMI-induced arrhythmia3.
β1AR is also implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Administration of a partial β1AR agonist, behavioral deficits in a mouse model of AD are restored and amyloid beta and tau levels decrease as measured by regional immunohistochemistry4.
Species reactivity key:
Anti-β1-Adrenergic Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-023) is a highly specific antibody directed against an extracellular epitope the rat β1-adrenoceptor. The antibody can be used in western blot and immunohistochemistry applications. The antibody recognizes an extracellular epitope and is thus ideal for detecting the receptor in living cells. It has been designed to recognize β1AR from mouse, rat and human samples.
Anti-β1-Adrenergic Receptor (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody (#AAR-023-AG) is directly labeled with an ATTO-488 fluorescent dye. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. The ATTO-488 label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC. Anti-β1-Adrenergic Receptor (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody has been tested in immunohistochemistry applications and is especially suited for experiments requiring simultaneous labeling of different markers.
- Anti-β1-Adrenergic Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-023), (for western blot analysis).