- Peptide (C)KETGAFYGREFKTAK, corresponding to amino acid residues 216-230 of human A3AR (Accession P0DMS8). 3rd intracellular loop.
- Western blot analysis of Malme-3M cell lysate:1. Anti-Adenosine A3 Receptor Antibody (#AAR-004), (1:200).
2. Anti-Adenosine A3 Receptor Antibody, preincubated with Adenosine A3 Receptor Blocking Peptide (#BLP-AR004).
- Expression of Adenosine A3 Receptor in rat lungImmunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded rat lung sections using Anti-Adenosine A3 Receptor Antibody (#AAR-004), (1:50). Staining is specific for respiratory epithelial cells of the bronchiole (arrows) and pneumonocytes in the alveolar wall (a). Hematoxilin is used as the counterstain.
- Expression of Adenosine A3 Receptor in a human melanoma cell lineImmunocytochemical staining of paraformaldehyde-fixed and permeabilized human melanoma cells (A2058). A, D. Cells were stained using Anti-Adenosine A3 Receptor Antibody (#AAR-004), (1:100), followed by goat anti-rabbit AlexaFluor-555 secondary antibody. B, E. Nuclear fluorescence staining of cells using the membrane-permeable DNA dye Hoechst 33342. C. Merged image of panels A and B. F. Merged image of panels D and E.
- Okusa, M.D. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282, F10.
- Fredholm, B.B. et al. (2001) Pharmacol. Rev. 53, 527.
- Nakata, H. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 16545
- Baraldi, P.G. et al. (2006) Curr. Med. Chem. 13, 3467.
- Headrick, J.P. et al. (2003) Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285, H1797.
- Madi, L. et al. (2004) Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 4472.
- Yehuda.S.P. et al. (2007) Pharmacol. Rev.16,1601.
Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside generated locally in tissues under conditions of hypoxia, ischemia, or inflammation. It modulates a variety of physiological functions in many tissues including the brain and heart.1,2 Adenosine exerts its action via four specific adenosine receptors (also named P1 purinergic receptors): Adenosine A1 Receptor (A1AR), Adenosine A2A Receptor (A2AAR), Adenosine A2B Receptor (A2BAR), and Adenosine A3 Receptor (A3AR). The various adenosine receptors can be distinguished on the basis of their distinct molecular structures, distinct tissue distributions, and differential selectivity for adenosine analogs.1-4 All are integral membrane proteins and are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They share a common structure of seven putative transmembrane domains, an extracellular amino terminus, a cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus, and a third intracellular loop important in binding G proteins.1-3
Expression of A3AR has been reported in the brain, kidney, liver, and heart. It plays a role in modulation of cerebral ischemia, asthma, and cell growth. In addition, recent studies have established a cardioprotective role for A3AR.5 Expression of A3AR was reported to be elevated in cancerous tissues as well as in auto-immune inflammatory diseases.6,7 A patent has been filed for the use of A3AR and A3AR agonist as a diagnostic marker for therapeutic treatments of cancer and other diseases.
Species reactivity key:
Alomone Labs is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an intracellular epitope of the human adenosine A3 receptor (A3AR). Anti-Adenosine A3 Receptor Antibody (#AAR-004) can be used in western blot analysis, as well as immunocytochemical and immunohistocemical applications, and has been designed to recognize A3AR from human, rat, and mouse samples.