- Peptide (C)EGISIYTSDNYTEE, corresponding to amino acid residues 2-15 of human CXCR4 (Accession P61073). Extracellular, N-terminus.
- Cell surface detection of CXCR4 in human Jurkat intact live cells:___ Unstained cells.
___ Cells + Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody (#ACR-014-AG), (5-10 µg/5x105 cells).
- Cell surface detection of CXCR4 in mouse BV-2 microglia cell line:___ Cells.
___ Cells + Rabbit IgG Isotype Control-ATTO Fluor-488.
___ Cells + Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody (#ACR-014-AG), (2.5µg).
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Chemokines are small molecular weight, soluble secreted proteins that bind and activate their respective G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), chemokine receptors in order to evoke a cellular response resulting in migration or chemotaxis1.
The chemokine system involves more than 40 chemokines and 18 chemokine receptors. The receptors are designated CXCR1-5, CCR1-11, XCR1 and CX3CR1, based on their specific ligand preference2.
Chemokine receptors are present on many different cell types. They were initially detected on leukocytes, where they were found to play an important role in the migration of these cells to inflammation sites3.
CXCR4 was originally identified as an orphan receptor, and soon gained much attention when it was discovered as a coreceptor for HIV-14. Besides from being involved in HIV-1 infection/progression, CXCR4 is found to be upregulated in many different cancers/tumors and has evolved to become a target for the development of antagonists5. CXCL12 (SDF-1α) is the sole ligand for CXCR4. Following binding of its ligand, CXCR4 undergoes dimerization and activates Gi G-proteins6,7. However downstream activation through CXCR4 could also occur through other G-proteins and non-G-proteins5. The down regulation of the CXCR4 receptor is initiated by phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic tail, which is followed by the binding of arrestin. The receptor is then internalized through endocytosis and degraded in the lysosome. Downregulation of CXCR4 could also occur through the stimulation of other GPCRs8.
The distribution of CXCR4 is quite broad and involves the central nervous system (CNS)9, spleen10, testes11, hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells12.
Species reactivity key:
Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-014) is a highly specific antibody directed against an extracellular epitope of the human CXCR4 chemokine receptor. The antibody can be used for western blot, immunohistochemistry and indirect flow cytometry applications. It has been designed to recognize CXCR4 from rat, mouse and human samples.
Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody (#ACR-014-AG) is directly labeled with an ATTO-488 fluorescent dye. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. The ATTO-488 label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC. Anti-CXCR4 (extracellular)-ATTO Fluor-488 Antibody is especially suited for experiments requiring simultaneous labeling of different markers.