- Peptide (C)KKYKYVEDYEQGLSGEMNQ, corresponding to amino acid residues 370-388 of rat P2X4 receptor (Accession P51577). Intracellular, C-terminus.
- Western blot analysis of rat brain (lanes 1 and 4), mouse brain (lanes 2 and 5) and human U-87 MG glioblastoma cell (lanes 3 and 6) lysates:1,2. Guinea pig Anti-P2X4 Receptor Antibody (#APR-002-GP), (1:500).
3. Guinea pig Anti-P2X4 Receptor Antibody (1:1000).
4-6. Guinea pig Anti-P2X4 Receptor Antibody, preincubated with P2X4 Receptor Blocking Peptide (#BLP-PR002).
- Prasad, M. et al. (2001) J. Physiol. 537, 667.
- Florenzano, F. et al. (2002) Neuroscience 115, 425.
- Ashcroft, F.M. et al. (2000) Ion Channels and Disease Ed 1, p. 405, Academic Press, San Diego.
- Khakh, B.S. et al. (2001) Pharmacol Rev. 53, 107.
- Ding, Y. et al. (2000) J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 81, 289.
- Le, K.T. et al. (1998) J. Neurosci. 18, 7152.
- Robertson, S.J. et al. (2001) Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 11, 378.
- Dunn, P.M. et al. (2001) Prog. Neurobiol. 65, 107.
- Kim, M. et al. (2001) EMBO J. 20, 6347.
- Inoue, K. et al. (2004) J. Pharmacol. Sci. 94, 112.
The P2X purinergic receptors belong to the ligand-gated ion channel family and are activated by extracellular ATP.
The structure and function of the P2X receptors, which were mainly investigated using in vitro models, indicate their involvement in synaptic communication, cell death, and differentiation.
Seven mammalian P2X receptor subtypes (P2X1–P2X7) have been identified and cloned.1,2,3 All P2X receptor subtypes share the same structure of intracellular N- and C-termini, two membrane-spanning domains and a large extracellular loop.
All P2X subunits can assemble to form homomeric or heteromeric functional channels with the exception of P2X6, which only appears to function as part of a heteromeric complex.4-9
The various P2X receptors show distinct expression patterns. P2X1-6 have been found in the central and peripheral nervous system, while the P2X7 receptor is predominantly found in cells of the immune system.4
The P2X2 receptor subunit has a widespread tissue distribution in autonomic neurons, but it is generally found to be co-expressed with one or more subtypes.
Overexpression of P2X4 was demonstrated in microglia and in the spinal dorsal horn following peripheral nerve injury. It has been suggested that activation of P2X4 along with p38 MAPK is essential for the development of allodynia (pain from a stimulus that doesn't normally elicit pain) following nerve injury. Inhibition of P2X4 expression in spinal microglia has been suggested as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of allodynia.10
Species reactivity key:
Guinea pig Anti-P2X4 Receptor Antibody (#APR-002-GP), raised in guinea pigs, is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the rat protein. The antibody can be used in western blot analysis. It has been designed to recognize P2X4 from mouse, rat, and human samples. The antigen used to immunize guinea pigs is the same as Anti-P2X4 Receptor Antibody (#APR-002) raised in rabbit. Our line of guinea pig antibodies enables more flexibility with our products such as multiplex staining studies, immunoprecipitation, etc.
- Anti-P2X4 Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#APR-024). This antibody recognizes a different epitope and thus can also be used as a control for detecting P2X4.
- Anti-P2X4 Receptor (extracellular)-FITC Antibody (#APR-024-F). This FITC-conjugated antibody can be used to detect P2X4 in live cell flow cytometry.
- Anti-P2X4 Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#APR-024). This antibody recognizes an extracellular epitope and be used to detect P2X4 in live cells.