Anti-VDAC Antibody

Voltage-dependent anion channel, Porin
    Cat #: AVC-001
    Alternative Name Voltage-dependent anion channel, Porin
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Antigen Incl.
  • Type: Polyclonal
    Host: Rabbit
    Reactivity: m, r
    May also work in: h*
    Immunogen
    • Peptide (C)DGKNVNAGGHK, corresponding to amino acid residues of 264-274 of rat VDAC1 (Accession Q9Z2L0). Intracellular.
    • Anti-VDAC Antibody
    Accession (Uniprot) Number Q9Z2L0
    Gene ID 83529
    Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
    Homology VDAC1: rat, mouse, human identical; VDAC2: rat, mouse, human - 9/11 amino acid residues identical; VDAC3: rat, mouse - 10/11 amino acid residues identical, human - 9/11 amino acid residues identical.
    RRID AB_10918815.
    Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
    Form Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
    Isotype Rabbit IgG.
    Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Reconstitution 50 µl or 0.2 ml double distilled water (DDW), depending on the sample size.
    Antibody concentration after reconstitution 0.8 mg/ml.
    Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Negative control antigen storage before reconstitution Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for 2 weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Negative control antigen reconstitution 100 µl double distilled water (DDW).
    Negative control antigen storage after reconstitution -20°C.
    Preadsorption Control 1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.
    Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis.
    Applications: wb
    May also work in: ic*, ifc*, ih*, ip*
    Western blot
    • Anti-VDAC Antibody
      Western blot analysis of rat kidney (lanes 1 and 4), rat brain (lanes 2 and 5), mouse brain (lanes 3 and 6) membranes and CCF-SSTGI (lanes 7 and 8) cell line lysate:
      1-3,7. Anti-VDAC Antibody (#AVC-001), (1:200).
      4-6,8. Anti-VDAC Antibody, preincubated with the negative control antigen.
    References
    1. Hiller, S. et al. (2008) Science 321, 1206.
    2. Bayrhuber, M. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 15370.
    3. Ujwal, R. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 17742.
    4. Lemasters, J.J. and Holmuhamedov, E. (2006) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1762, 181.
    5. Rostovtseva, T.K. et al. (2002) J. Membr. Biol. 187, 147.
    6. De Pinto, V. et al. (2010) FEBS Lett. 584, 1793.
    7. Okada, S.F. et al. (2004) J. Gen. Physiol. 124, 513.
    8. Bahamonde, M.I. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 33284.
    9. Sampson, M.J. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 39206.
    10. Wu, S. et al. (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1452, 68.
    11. Sampson, M.J. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 30482.
    Scientific background

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is an outer mitochondrial membrane channel protein. It is required for proper mitochondrial function and as such is ubiquitously expressed. The three isoforms expressed in higher eukaryotes are highly conserved. VDAC1, VDAC2 and VDAC3 allow the movement of most metabolites in and out of the mitochondria. The channel spans the membrane 19 times through antiparallel β strands1-3.

    Studies show that VDAC channels exhibit ion selectivity and are voltage-dependent. When in the open state, VDAC channels conduct mainly organic anions such as ATP, ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). In the closed state they still conduct ions, but much smaller and mostly inorganic, such as K+, Na+ and Ca2+ 4-5. While cells are metabolically active, VDAC channels are constitutively open in order to enable oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria to take place (through the passage of ADP across the membrane)4.

    VDAC channels are best described for their role in apoptosis. In the early stages of the signaling pathway, a proapoptotic factor, a member of the Bcl2 family, is responsible for closing the channel thereby decreasing the release of ADP and ATP from the mitochondria4.

    VDAC channels are also implicated in the Warburg effect, which is typical of cancer cells. In such cells, hexokinase (the first enzyme in the glycolytic pathway responsible for phosphorylating glucose on C6 to yield glucose-6 phosphate) known to be up-regulated, binds to VDAC1 and takes up most of the ATP released by the channel in order to phosphorylate glucose. This action speeds up glycolysis if downstream reactions function properly. If however a glycolysis step is inhibited or down-regulated, glucose-6-phosphate builds up and consequently inhibits hexokinase, thereby restoring proper mitochondrial function4.

    VDAC is also detected in the plasma membrane of various cell types including lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and astrocytes6. The postulated roles for VDAC in the plasma membrane mainly involve the regulation of cellular ATP release and volume control7. VDACs have also been proposed to function as the plasma membrane maxi anion channels8.

    None of the isoforms are essential for viability. Knock-out of VDAC3 in mice causes sterility in males9. That of VDAC1 and VDAC2 affects breathing10 and the individual knock-out of VDAC1 causes embryonic death in mice in some cases11.

    Application key:

    CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IF- Immunofluorescence, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

    Species reactivity key:

    H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat
    Last update: 24/01/2020

    Alomone Labs is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of rat VDAC1. Anti-VDAC Antibody (#AVC-001) can be used in western blot analysis. It is a pan antibody recognizing VDAC1, VDAC2 and VDAC3 from human, rat and mouse samples.

    For research purposes only, not for human use

    Applications

    Specifications

    Scientific Background

    Citations

    Citations
    Western blot citations
    1. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle lysate (1:1000).
      Bal, N.C. et al. (2016) J. Biol. Chem. 291, 17247.
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