Anti-VMAT2-ATTO-488 Antibody

Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2, SLC18A2
    Cat #: AMT-006-AG
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Antigen Incl.
  • Shipped at Room Temp.
  • Type: Polyclonal
    Source: Rabbit
    Reactivity: h, m, r
    Immunogen
    Peptide (C)KHEKNSTEIQT(A)R, corresponding to amino acid residues 52- 64 of rat VMAT2 (Accession Q01827). 1st luminal loop.
    Accession (Uniprot) Number Q01827
    Gene ID 25549
    Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
    Homology Rat, mouse, human - 12/13 amino acid residues identical.
    Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
    Formulation Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
    Label ATTO-488. Maximum absorption 501 nm; maximum fluorescence 523 nm. The fluorescence is excited most efficiently in the 480 – 515 nm range. This label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC.
    Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Reconstitution 50 µl double distilled water (DDW).
    Antibody concentration after reconstitution 1 mg/ml.
    Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C, protected from the light, for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).
    Control antigen storage before reconstitution Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for 2 weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Control antigen reconstitution 100 µl double distilled water (DDW).
    Control antigen storage after reconstitution -20ºC.
    Preadsorption Control 1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.
    Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis (unlabeled antibody, #AMT-006), and immunohistochemistry (labeled antibody).
    Applications: ih
    May also work in: ic
    Immunohistochemistry
    Immuno-colocalization of VMAT2 and TRPC3 in rat brain
    Immunohistochemical staining of perfusion-fixed frozen rat substantia nigra sections using Anti-VMAT2-ATTO-488 Antibody (#AMT-006-AG), (1:60) and Anti-TRPC3-ATTO-594 Antibody (#ACC-016-AR), (1:60). A. VMAT2 staining (green). B. The same section stained for TRPC3 (red). C. Merged image demonstrates the ubiquitous colocalization of VMAT2 and TRPC3 in cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta.  Arrows point at examples of co-expression.
    References
    1. Bernstein, A.I. et al. (2014) Neurochem. Int. 73, 89.
    2. Weihe, E. et al. (1994) J. Mol. Neurosci. 5,149.
    3. Sudhof, T.C. (2004) Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 509.
    4. Fon, E.A. et al. (1997) Neuron 19, 1271.
    5. Zheng, G. et al. (2006) AAPS J. 8, E682.
    Scientific background

    Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) are essential for proper monoaminergic neurotransmission, which requires the sequestration of the transmitter into synaptic vesicles by VMAT for subsequent Ca2+-stimulated exocytotic release. VMATs contain 12 transmembrane spanning domains, with cytosolic C- and N-terminals and large glycosylated intravesicular loops. In mammals, there are two VMAT isoforms: VMAT1 (SLC18A1) and VMAT2 (SLC18A2)1.

    VMATs primarily transport monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and histamine), but also sequester toxicants into vesicles, shunting them away from cytosolic sites of action. In the central nervous system, VMAT2 is the only transporter that moves cytoplasmic dopamine (DA) into synaptic vesicles for storage and subsequent exocytotic release2.

    VMAT2 is expressed in monoaminergic neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) and sympathetic postganglionic neurons. VMAT2 is widely expressed during embryonic development3. Homozygous knock-out of VMAT2 in mice is lethal and heterozygous knock-out of VMAT2 in mice shows a clear gene dosage effect, with half the amount of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin content in brain4. In addition VMAT2 plays a role in neuroprotection and molecules that interact with VMAT2 may have value as treatments for diseases such as Parkinson’s disease5.

    Application key:

    CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

    Species reactivity key:

    H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat
    Last update: 25/10/2018

    Anti-VMAT2 Antibody (#AMT-006) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of rat vesicular monoamine transporter 2. The antibody can be used in western blot and immunohistochemistry applications. It has been designed to recognize VMAT2 from human, rat and mouse samples.

    Anti-VMAT2-ATTO-488 Antibody (#AMT-006-AG) is directly labeled with an ATTO-488 fluorescent dye. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. The ATTO-488 label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC. Anti-VMAT2-ATTO-488 Antibody has been tested in immunohistochemistry applications and is especially suited to experiments requiring simultaneous labeling of different markers.

    For research purposes only, not for human use