- Peptide CRFHLEIQEEETK, corresponding to amino acid residues 25-37 of human VPAC2 (Accession P41587). Extracellular, N-terminus.
- Western blot analysis of rat brain lysate (lanes 1 and 4), mouse brain lysate (lanes 2 and 5), and human Malme-3M melanoma cell lysate (lanes 3 and 6):1-3. Anti-VPAC2 (VIPR2) (extracellular) Antibody (#AVR-002), (1:600).
4-6. Anti-VPAC2 (VIPR2) (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with VPAC2/VIPR2 (extracellular) Blocking Peptide (#BLP-VR002).
- Cell surface detection of VPAC2 by indirect flow cytometry in live intact human Jurkat T-cell leukemia cells:___ Cells.
___ Cells + goat-anti-rabbit-APC.
___ Cells + Anti-VPAC2 (VIPR2) (extracellular) Antibody (#AVR-002), (2.5μg) + goat-anti-rabbit-APC.
- Expression of VPAC2 in rat PC12 cellsCell surface detection of VPAC2 in live intact rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. A. Extracellular staining of cells with Anti-VPAC2 (VIPR2) (extracellular) Antibody (#AVR-002), (1:50), followed by goat anti-rabbit-AlexaFluor-594 secondary antibody (red). B. Live view of the cells. C. Merge of A and B.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) are prominent neuropeptides that are structurally related. Two receptors have similarly high affinity for VIP and PACAP and have therefore been termed VIP and PACAP receptor 1 (VPAC1) and VIP and PACAP receptor 2 (VPAC2). VPAC2 (also known as vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2) belongs to the Class II family of G-protein coupled receptors1. A distinct feature of class II GPCRs is the presence of large N-terminal extracellular domains which contain 10 highly conserved amino acids including six cysteines, putative N terminal leader sequences and several potential N-glycosylation sites1.
VPAC2 receptor is expressed in the uterus, prostate, smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, seminal vesicles and skin, blood vessels and thymus2. VPAC2 is also expressed in various brain regions including the thalamus and the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)3.
VPAC2 plays important roles in the control of mammalian circadian rhythms in the SCN. Mice lacking VPAC2 show altered circadian rhythms in locomotor behavior, neuronal firing and clock gene expression4. Recent studies have also shown that duplication of the VPAC2 gene, and the resulting higher than normal VPAC2 signaling in patients confers a significant risk to schizophrenia5.
Species reactivity key:
Alomone Labs is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an extracellular epitope of human VIP and PACAP receptor 2. Anti-VPAC2 (VIPR2) (extracellular) Antibody (#AVR-002) can be used in western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry and indirect flow cytometry applications. It has been designed to recognize VPAC2 from human, rat and mouse samples.