Every lot is tried & tested in a relevant biological assay.
- Alomone Labs Brefaldin A inhibits the assembly of the Golgi complex in HeLa cells.Cells were treated with or without 40 µg Brefeldin A (#B-275) for 1 h. The upper and lower right panels show that Golgin (red), a golgi marker, is disassembled upon treatment. DAPI is used as the counterstain (blue).
- Alomone Labs Brefeldin A inhibits the assembly of the Golgi complex in 3T3-L1 cells.Cells were treated without (A) or with (B) 40 µg/ml Brefeldin A (#B-275) for 1 h. The figure represents superposition of triple labeling using anti-manosidase II, a Golgi apparatus marker (red), DAPI for nuclear staining (blue) and DIOC16 for cell membrane staining (green).
- Herri, E. et al. (1963) Helv. Chim. Acta. 46, 1235.
- Handschin, U. et al. (1968) Helv. Chim. Acta. 51, 1943.
- Tamura, G. et al. (1968) J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 21, 160.
- Oda, K. et al. (1987) FEBS Lett. 214, 135.
- Takatsuki, A. et al. (1985) Agric. Biol. Chem. 49, 899.
- Fujiwara, T. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 18545.
- Lippincott-Schwartz, J. et al. (1989) Cell 56, 801.
- Klausner, R.D. et al. (1992) J. Cell. Biol. 116, 1071.
- Misumi, Y. et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 11398.
- Betina, V. (1992) Folia Microbiol. (Praha) 37, 3.
- Pommepuy, I. et al. (2003) Oncology 64, 459.
- Salles F.T. et al. (2004) Oral Oncol. 40, 585.
- Kikuchi, S. et al. (2004) J. Neurosci. Res. 71, 591.
Brefeldin A (BFA)1 is a macrocyclic lactone synthesized from palmitate (C16) by a variety of fungi. It was initially isolated and characterized in the 1960s as an antiviral antibiotic.2,3 In the late 1980s it was found to act as a very powerful inhibitor of intracellular protein transport.4-6 BFA specifically and reversibly blocks protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus in many cell types and species.7,8 These effects are generally accompanied by distinct structural changes expressed in apparent collapse of the Golgi stacks and its redistribution into the ER as well as into the nuclear envelope,6,7 which leads to inhibition of protein secretion, vesicular assembly and antigen presentation.3-9 A large body of evidence demonstrates that BFA inhibits the whole cell membrane traffic by its ability to inhibit binding of regulatory coat proteins to their target organelles. In this way, BFA deregulates membrane traffic throughout the central vacuolar system of the cell.8
BFA was also shown to act as a mitosis inhibitor in plant cells, and as a cancerostatic and apoptosis inducer in animal cells.6-10
BFA is very effective for enhancing accumulation of intracellular cytokines and it has relatively low toxicity (LD50 in mice (intraperitoneal injection) >200 mg/kg).10 Due to its peculiar activity, BFA is used as an inducer of pathogenesis in models of neurodegenerative diseases.10-13
Brefeldin A (#B-275) is a highly pure, natural, and biologically active compound.