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Na+/K+ ATPases

Na+/K+-ATPase a membrane protein located on the plasma membrane of all animal cells, is involved in maintaining the Na+ and K+ gradient across the cell membrane. It is ubiquitously expressed in neurons and helps maintain normal neuronal function. The enzyme is composed of a catalytic a chain of 112 kDa. and α glycosylated β chain of 40–50 kDa. There are four isoforms of the α subunit (α1, α2, α3 and α4) and three isoforms of the β subunit (β1, β2 and β3) with different tissue distributions.
Na+/K+-ATPase abnormalities have been reported to be involved in several neurological diseases such as seizures, bipolar disorder, spongiform encephalopathy, and Alzheimer’s disease. Na+/K+-ATPase may also have implications in behavioral defects.