Vesicular Monoamine Transporters

Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) are transmembrane proteins located on membranes of monoaminergic neurons and are responsible for the uptake of cytosolic monoamines into synaptic vesicles. They store neurotransmitter molecules in synaptic vesicles for additional cycles of release. They are acidic glycoproteins encoded by the SLC18A1 gene and transport neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, histamine and norepinephrine. Its structure is composed of 12 transmembrane domains, the C- and N-termini are located in the cytosolic side of the vesicle. The glycosylation sites are located in the vesicular matrix on a loop between transmembrane domain I and II.