Anti-CNGA2 Antibody

Cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 2, CNG channel alpha-2, CNG2, CNCG2, Olfactory cyclic nucleotide gated channel 1, OCNC1
    Cat #: APC-045
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Antigen Incl.
  • Shipped at Room Temp.
  • Type: Polyclonal
    Source: Rabbit
    Reactivity: h, m, r
    Immunogen
    Peptide (C)KQNHEDDYLSDGINTPEP, corresponding to amino acid residues 643-660 of rat CNGA2. (Accession Q00195). Intracellular, C-terminus.
    Accession (Uniprot) Number Q00195
    Gene ID 108348053
    Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
    Homology Mouse - identical; rabbit - 15/18 amino acid residues identical; human, bovine - 14/18 amino acid residues identical.
    Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
    Formulation Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
    Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Reconstitution 50 µl or 0.2 ml double distilled water (DDW), depending on the sample size.
    Antibody concentration after reconstitution 0.8 mg/ml.
    Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Control antigen storage before reconstitution Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for 2 weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Control antigen reconstitution 100 µl double distilled water (DDW).
    Control antigen storage after reconstitution -20°C.
    Preadsorption Control 1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.
    Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis.
    Applications: ic, ih, wb
    May also work in: ifc, ip
    Western blot
    Western blot analysis of rat brain membranes:
    1. Anti-CNGA2 Antibody (#APC-045), (1:200).
    2. Anti-CNGA2 Antibody, preincubated with the control peptide antigen.
    Immunohistochemistry
    Expression of CNGA2 in rat cerebellum
    Immunohistochemical staining of rat cerebellum using Anti-CNGA2 Antibody (#APC-045). A. CNGA2 (red) appears in Purkinje cells (vertical arrows) and in astrocytic fibers (horizontal arrows) traversing the cerebellar molecular layer (Mol). B. Staining of astrocytes with mouse anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, green) demonstrates the full distribution of astrocytic fibers (horizontal arrows) in the cerebellum. C. Confocal merge of panels A and B.
    Expression of CNGA2 in mouse cerebrum
    Immunohistochemical staining of mouse cerebrum using Anti-CNGA2 Antibody (#APC-045). A. CNGA2 (red) appears in cells lining up the wall of the lateral ventricle (LV) (horizontal arrows). B. Staining of astrocytes with mouse anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, green) demonstrates penetration of astrocytic fibers (vertical arrows) into the wall of the lateral ventricle. C. Confocal merge of panels A and B.
    Immunocytochemistry
    Expression of CNGA2 in rat cerebellum primary culture 
    Immunocytochemical staining of paraformaldehyde-fixed and permeabilized rat cerebellum primary culture. A-F. Immunocytochemical staining using Anti-CNGA2 Antibody (#APC-045), (1:100) followed by goat anti-rabbit-AlexaFluor-555 secondary antibody.
    Magnification:
    A-C: x20
    D-F: x100
    References
    1. Biel, M. et al.(1999) Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 135, 151.
    2. Kramer, R.H. and Molokanova, E. (2001) J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2921.
    3. Matulef, K. (2003) Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 19, 23.
    4. Molday, R.S. (1996) Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6, 445.
    5. Kingston, P.A. et al.(1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 10440.
    6. Podda, M.V. et al. (2005) Neuroreport 16, 1939.
    Scientific background

    Cyclic nucleotides are important second messengers in many cellular functions such as visual transduction, and relaxation of smooth muscle cells. Cyclic nucleotides exert their cellular functions through three major classes of cellular receptors, one of them is the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels.1 The CNG channels are non-selective cation channels facilitating the influx of Na+ and Ca2+ ions, following activation by intracellular cyclic nucleotides.2 In vertebrates, six members of the CNG channel family were identified and grouped according to sequence homology into two subtypes, CNGA and CNGB. To date, four types of the a subunits (CNGA1-4) and two b subunits (CNGB1, CNGB3) have been characterized.3-4 

    Native CNG channels are composed of a and b subunits in a tetrameric configuration. Each subunit contains 6 TM domains and intracellular cAMP or cGMP binding domains, but are also modulated by other factors including phosphorylation and calmodulin.5 In a heterologous expression system, only the a subunits are capable of forming functional homomeric channels. 

    CNG ion channels are essential in visual and olfactory signal transduction.

    CNG channels were originally detected in rod and cone photoreceptors and olfactory receptor cells, where they mediate the transduction of external sensory stimuli into neuronal activity.6

    CNGA2 is predominantly expressed in olfactory neurons (the olfactory type receptor). However, electrophysiological and molecular data indicate that CNGA1, and especially CNGA2, are widely distributed and functionally active in many regions of the brain, including the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem.7

    Application key:

    CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

    Species reactivity key:

    H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat
    Image & Title: Anti-CNGA2 Antibody
    Expression of CNGA2 in mouse neural stem cells.Immunocytochemical staining of mouse neural stem cells with Anti-CNGA2 Antibody (#APC-045). CNGA2 staining (green) co-localizes with Nestin (red), a neural stem cell marker and MAP2 (red), a neuronal marker at different differentiation stages.Adapted from Podda, M.V. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e73246. with permission of PLoS.
    Last update: 17/01/2019

    Alomone Labs is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an intracellular epitope of the rat CNGA2 channel. Anti-CNGA2 Antibody (#APC-045) can be used in western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytochemistry applications. It has been designed to recognize CNGA2 from human, rat, and mouse samples.

    For research purposes only, not for human use
    Citations
    Western blot citations
    1. Mouse olfactory epithelium lysate (1:2000).
      Ferguson, C.H. and Zhao, H. (2017) J. Neurosci. 37, 110.

    2. Rat olfactory mucosa lysate.
      Villar, P.S. et al. (2017) J. Neurosci. 37, 5736.

    3. Mouse neural stem cell lysate (1:200).
      Podda, M.V. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e73246.
    4. Mouse olfactory epithelial lysate (1:200).
      Oztokatli, H. et al. (2012) FASEB J. 256, 617.
    5. Human olfactory epithelial cell lysate.
      Borgmann-Winter, K.Eet al. (2009) Neuroscience 158, 642.
    6. Bovine aorta lysate.
      Shalom, R. et al. (2006) Eur. J. Pharmacol. 543, 8.
    Immunohistochemistry citations
    1. Mouse olfactory epithelium sections.
      Almatrouk, A. et al. (2018) Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, 2939.

    2. Mouse olfactory bulb sections (1:500).
      Pyrski, M. et al. (2018) Front. Cell. Neurosci. 12, 295.

    3. Mouse olfactory epithelium sections.
      Ferguson, C.H. and Zhao, H. (2017) J. Neurosci. 37, 110.

    4. Mouse olfactory epithelium sections.
      Maurya, D.K. et al. (2017) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, E9386.

    5. Mouse olfactory tissue sections (1:300).
      Jiang, L. et al. (2015) FASEB J. 29, 4866.
    6. Mouse olfactory and retina sections (1:300).
      Ying, G. et al. (2014) J. Neurosci. 34, 6377.
    7. Mouse brain sections (1:60).
      Podda, M.V. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e73246.
    8. Mouse olfactory cilia (1:200).
      Kaneko-Goto, T. et al. (2013) J. Neurosci. 33, 12987.
    9. Mouse olfactory epithelial sections (1:500).
      Oztokatli, H. et al. (2012) FASEB J. 256, 617.
    10. Rat brain sections.
      Podda, M.V. et al. (2008) J. Physiol. 586, 803.
    11. Rat cochlea sections.
      Drescher, M.J. et al. (2002) Mol. Brain. Res. 98, 1.
    Immunocytochemistry citations
    1. Mouse neural stem cells (1:100).
      Podda, M.V. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e73246.
    2. Human olfactory epithelial cell culture.
      Borgmann-Winter, K.Eet al. (2009) Neuroscience 158, 642.
    More product citations
    1. Gerhold, K.A. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e55001.
    2. McIntyre, J.Cet al. (2012) Nat. Med. 18, 1423.
    3. Podda, M.Vet al. (2012) Glia 60, 1391.
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