- Peptide (C)EVTQGHSLKDGLGH, corresponding to amino acid residues 40-53 of rat SLC28A2 (Accession Q62773). Intracellular, N-terminus.
- Western blot analysis of mouse liver (lanes 1 and 3) and rat heart (lanes 2 and 4) membranes:1,2. Anti-SLC28A2 (CNT2) Antibody (#ANT-062), (1:200).
3,4. Anti-SLC28A2 (CNT2) Antibody, preincubated with SLC28A2/CNT2 Blocking Peptide (#BLP-NT062).
- Molina-Arcas, M. et al. (2009) Curr. Vasc. Pharmacol. 7, 426.
- Rose, J.B. and Coe, I.R. (2008) Physiology 23, 41.
- Baldwin, S.A. et al. (2004) Pflugers Arch. 447, 735.
- Gray, J.H. et al. (2004) Pflugers Arch. 447, 728.
- Ritzel, M.W. et al. (1998) Mol. Membr. Biol. 15, 203.
- Ritzel, M.W. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 2914.
- Smith, K.M. et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 25436.
- Pennycooke, M. et al. (2001) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 280, 951.
- Felipe, A. et al. (1998) Biochem. J. 330 (Pt.2), 997.
- Valdes, R. et al. (2000) Gastroenterology 119, 1623.
- Anderson, C.M. et al. (1996) Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 42, 358.
- Guillen-Gomez, E. et al. (2004) J. Neurochem. 90, 883.
Nucleosides play other important roles beyond their nucleic acid synthesis building block role. For example, they are involved in energy metabolism; they serve as ligands of purinergic receptors and act as influential signaling molecules1. Being hydrophilic, nucleosides cannot simply diffuse across the plasma membrane in order to exert their various functions, but rather need to be physically transported via nucleoside transporters1,2.
Two different transporter families are responsible for transporting nucleosides across the plasma membrane: the Concentrative nucleoside transporter proteins (CNT, SLC28 family), which consist of three members, CNT1-3, and act as Na+-dependent symporters1,3 and the Equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins ENT1-4 (ENT, SLC29 family), which mediate a Na+-independent facilitated diffusion. Therefore, ENTs act as bidirectional carriers, responsible for the influx and efflux of substrates1.
CNTs are responsible for the intracellular uptake of nucleosides, an energy consuming process which is coupled to the Na+ gradient across the plasma membrane. All three transporters display a relatively high affinity for their substrates but a more selective than ENTs1,4. Pyrimidines are the substrate of choice for CNT1 although it can bind but not transport adenosine. CNT2 prefers purines, although it can transport uridine, and CNT3 is selective for both types of nucleosides. Both CNT1 and CNT2 display a 1:1 stoichiometry (nucleoside:sodium)1,5. CNT3 on the other hand transports two Na+ ions per nucleoside, and can also co-transport protons in a pH dependent manner in a 1:1 ratio1,6,7.
All three CNTs have thirteen transmembrane domains and an extracellular C-terminus responsible for substrate recognition1.
CNT1 is widely expressed in the small intestine, kidney and liver1,8-10. CNT2 is expressed in immune system cells1,8 and CNT3 expression is abundant in monocytes and macrophages. All three are detected in various regions of the brain1,6,11,12.
There is no evidence that nucleoside transporters are directly involved in pathophysiologies, but they are clinically significant. For example, nucleoside transporters are responsible for the cellular uptake of a number of nucleoside-derived anticancer drugs1.
Species reactivity key:
Alomone Labs is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the rat Concentrative nucleoside transporter 2. Anti-SLC28A2 (CNT2) Antibody (#ANT-062) can be used in western blot analysis. It has been designed to recognize CNT2 from rat and mouse samples. The antibody is not recommended for use on human samples.