This product is freeze dried. All water molecules have been removed.
Every lot is tried & tested in a relevant biological assay.
- Alomone Labs (-)-Cytisine activates α2/β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes.Current traces of α2/β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels activity at -60 mV holding potential. The bars above the trace represent periods where (-)-Cytisine (#C-130) or acetylcholine were applied at the indicated concentration.
- 1. Banko, P.C. et al. (2002) J. Chem. Ecol. 28, 1393.
- 2. Albuquerque, E.X. et al. (2009) Physiol. Rev. 89, 73.
- 3. Luetje, C.W. and Patrick, J. (1991) J. Neurosci. 11, 837.
- 4. Chavez-Noriega, L.E. et al. (1997) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 280, 346.
- 5. Papke, R.L. and Heinemann, S.F. (1994) Mol. Pharmacol. 45, 142.
- 6. Mineur, Y.S. et al. (2007) Neuropharmacology 52, 1256.
- 7. Reavill, C. et al. (1990) Neuropharmacology 29, 619.
(-)-Cytisine is an alkaloid, which occurs naturally in several types of plants as well as in animals feeding on them (see example in reference 1). (-)-Cytisine is a potent and selective agonist of neuronal nAChR2. It acts as a partial agonist of β2-containing nAChR3.
EC50s differ for different subunit-composed channels; for recombinant human channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes the following EC50 values were reported: 25 µM, 39 µM, 67 µM, 72 µM, 2.6 µM 0.9 µM and 71 µM for α2/β2, α2/β4, α3/β2, α3/β4, α4/β2, α4/β4 and α7 respectively4.
However, in β2-containing channels, the response to acetylcholine (ACh) is largely reduced when applied in combination with (-)-Cytisine5. Therefore, when applied in vivo it exerts a compound effect of both activating certain nAchRs and inhibiting the effect of ACh on others. For example, (-)-Cytisine was found to have antidepressant-like effects in several animal models of antidepressant efficacy. This was probably achieved by inhibiting the effect of ACh on α2/β4 channel in the basolateral amygdala6.
In another study, the effects of (-)-Cytisine were compared to nicotine. Rats were trained to discriminate nicotine from saline and it was confirmed that (-)-Cytisine had a nicotine-like discriminative effect, but it was much less potent than nicotine itself7.
(-)-Cytisine (#C-130) is a highly pure, synthetic, and biologically active compound.
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α1 (CHRNA1) (extracellular) Antibody (#ANC-001)
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α3 (CHRNA3) (extracellular) Antibody (#ANC-003)
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 (CHRNA7) (extracellular) Antibody (#ANC-007)
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 (CHRNA7) (extracellular)-FITC Antibody (#ANC-007-F)
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor β2 (CHRNB2) (extracellular) Antibody (#ANC-012)
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor β2 (CHRNB2) (extracellular)-ATTO-594 Antibody (#ANC-012-AR)
- Blockers/Antagonists: peptides/peptide toxinsBlockers/Antagonists: small molecules