Taipoxin

Taipan toxin
A Blocker of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling
    Cat #: T-460
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Bioassay Tested
  • Shipped at Room Temp.
  • 100% Net Peptide
  • Origin Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus (Australian taipan, Coastal taipan).
    Source Natural peptide
    MW: 46000 Da.
    Purity: >97% (HPLC)
    Effective concentration 10-50 nM.
    Sequence α, β and γ chains non-covalently linked.
    Modifications Highly disulfide bridged protein, glycosylated.
    Activity Taipoxin gradually and completely stops induced and spontaneous release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals1. Taipoxin is considered to be the most potent toxin.
    Storage before reconstitution Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20ֲ°C.
    Reconstitution Water. Centrifuge all product preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Do not shake or vortex.
    Storage after reconstitution Up to one week at 4ֲ°C or six months at -20ֲ°C.
    Our bioassay
    Alomone Labs Taipoxin changes the outer membrane distribution of Syntaxin-1 and Synaptotagmin-1 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons.
    Rat DRG neuron cell cultures were treated with or without 20 nM Taipoxin (#T-460) for one hour. The cells were labeled with Anti-Syntaxin 1 Antibody (#ANR-002) and Anti-Synaptotagmin-I Antibody (#ANR-003) followed by goat anti- rabbit-AlexaFluor-555 secondary antibody.
    Alomone Labs Taipoxin changes the actin filaments distribution in the growing neurite tip bulge of differentiated PC12 cells.
    Cells were differentiated with 50 ng/ml Native mouse NGF 2.5S protein (99%) (#N-240) for 3 days and stimulated with control vehicle (A) or 10 nM (B) and  20 nM (C) Taipoxin (#T-460) for 1h. The figure presents actin filaments stained with Rhodamine conjugated phalloidin.
    References
    1. Fohlman, J. et al. (1976) Eur. J. Biochem 68, 457.
    2. Lind, P. and Eaker, D. (1982) Eur. J. Biochem. 124, 441.
    3. Cull-Candy, S. et al. (1976) Neuroscience 1, 175.
    4. Kirkpatrick, L.L. et al. (2000) J. Biol. Chem275, 17786.
    5. Lambeau, G. et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 11503.
    6. Bonanomi, D. et al. (2005)  Mol. Pharmacol67, 1901.
    7. Dreyer, F. and Penner, R. (1987)  J. Physiol386, 455.
    Scientific background

    Taipoxin is a lethal neurotoxin protein isolated from the venom of the Australian taipan Oxyuranus s. scutellatus (LD50= 2 µg/kg in mouse). Taipoxin is a non-covalent ternary glycoprotein which is completely dissociated at low pH or high ionic strength. One of the subunits has Phospholipase A2 activity1,2.

    Intoxicated animals die of asphyxia caused by a complete inhibition of neurotransmitter release and neuromuscular junction blockage of the respiratory muscles. In the central nervous system taipoxin blocks synaptic vesicle recycling by inhibiting the neuronal uptake pathway through the interaction with neuronal Pentraxin system components during synapse formation and remodeling1,3-5.

    In neuronal cultures, Taipoxin facilitates Ca2+-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis and causes a complete depletion of stored neurotransmitter, resulting in synaptic transmission blockage. Taipoxin, at nanomolar range, causes swelling of nerve terminus and redistributon of synaptic vesicle proteins7.

    Net Peptide Content: 100%
    Last update: 11/10/2018

    Taipoxin (#T-460) is a highly pure, natural, and biologically active peptide toxin.

    For research purposes only, not for human use