Lysophospholipid (LPA) Receptors

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule with a phosphate, a glycerol, and a fatty acid in its structure. The cellular effects of LPA include proliferation, migration, cytokine secretion, and morphological change. These pleiotropic actions allow LPA to participate in a wide variety of biological processes, such as brain development, oncogenesis, wound healing and cancer progression. To date, at least 6 subtypes of LPA receptors have been identified. The LPA1-3 receptors are members of the endothelial cell differentiation gene (Edg) family. All six receptors are type I, rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that differ in their tissue distribution and downstream signaling pathways.