Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody

ADORA2b, A2BAR, Adenosine A2bR
    Cat #: AAR-003
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Antigen Incl.
  • Shipped at Room Temp.
  • Type: Polyclonal
    Source: Rabbit
    Reactivity: h, m, r
    Immunogen
    Peptide KDSATNN*STEPWDGTTNESC, corresponding to amino acid residues 147-166 of human A2BAR with replacement of cysteine 154 (C154) with serine (*S) (Accession P29275). 2nd extracellular loop.
    Accession (Uniprot) Number P29275
    Gene ID 136
    Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
    Homology Rat - 14/19 amino acid residues identical; mouse - 13/19 amino acid residues identical.
    Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
    Formulation Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
    Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Reconstitution 25 µl, 50 µl or 0.2 ml double distilled water (DDW), depending on the sample size.
    Antibody concentration after reconstitution 0.75 mg/ml.
    Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Control antigen storage before reconstitution Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for 2 weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Control antigen reconstitution 100 µl double distilled water (DDW).
    Control antigen storage after reconstitution -20°C.
    Preadsorption Control 1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.
    Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis.
    Applications: ic, ifc, ih, lci, wb
    May also work in: ip
    Western blot
    Western blot analysis of HL-60 (lanes 1 and 2) cell line, rat brain (lanes 3 and 4) and mouse brain (lanes 5 and 6) lysates:
    1,3,5. Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:200).
    2,4,6. Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with the control peptide antigen.
    Immunohistochemistry
    Expression of Adenosine A2B Receptor in rat lung
    Immunohistochemical staining of rat lung paraffin embedded sections using Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:50). Staining is present in the respiratory epithelium of the bronchiole (Br) as well as in the pneumonocytes of the alveolar wall (alveoli, (A). Color reaction was obtained with SuperPicture HRP-conjugated polymer (Zymed) followed by DAB. Hematoxilin is used as the counterstain.
    Indirect flow cytometry
    Rat enterochromaffin (EC) cells (1:500), (Damen, R. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e62607.).
    Live cell imaging / Immunocytochemistry
    Expression of Adenosine A2B Receptor in rat PC12 cells
    Immunocytochemical staining of intact living rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. A. Extracellular staining of cells using Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:100) followed by goat anti-rabbit-AlexaFluor-594 secondary antibody. B. Merge of A and live view of the cells.
    References
    1. Okusa, M.D. (2002) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 282, F10.
    2. Fredholm, B.B. et al. (2001) Pharmacol. Rev. 53, 527.
    3. Nakata, H. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 16545.
    4. Baraldi, P.G. et al. (2006) Curr. Med. Chem. 13, 3467.
    5. Polosa, R. (2002) Eur. Respir. J. 20, 488.
    Scientific background

    Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside generated locally in tissues under conditions of hypoxia, ischemia, or inflammation. It modulates a variety of physiological functions in many tissues including the brain and heart.1,2 Adenosine exerts its actions via four specific adenosine receptors (also named P1 purinergic receptors): Adenosine A1 Receptor (A1AR), Adenosine A2A Receptor (A2AAR), Adenosine A2B Receptor (A2BAR), and Adenosine A3 Receptor (A3AR). All are integral membrane proteins and are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They share a common structure of seven putative transmembrane domains, an extracellular amino terminus, a cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus, and a third intracellular loop important in binding G proteins.1-3

    The various adenosine receptors can be distinguished on the basis of their distinct molecular structures, distinct tissue distributions, and differential selectivity for adenosine analogs.1-4

    The adenosine A2 receptor subtype was subdivided according to affinity for adenosine; A2AAR has high affinity and A2BAR has low affinity.

    A2BAR is expressed in mast cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, bronchial epithelium, intestinal epithelium, smooth muscle, brain, and other cells.5 In intestinal epithelia, A2BAR was found to be the major adenosine receptor subtype expressed and is thought to be involved in diarrheal diseases. It is also believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases.4 Thus, antagonists of A2BAR might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory gastrointestinal tract disorders4 as well as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.5

    Application key:

    CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

    Species reactivity key:

    H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat
    Last update: 16/12/2018

    Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003) is a highly specific antibody directed against an extracellular epitope of human adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR). The antibody can be used in western blot, immunohistochemistry, live cell imaging and indirect flow cytometry applications. It has been designed to recognize A2BAR from human, rat and mouse samples.

    For research purposes only, not for human use
    Citations
    Western blot citations
    1. Rat retina cell lysate (1:1000).
      Vindeirinho, J. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e67499.
    Immunocytochemistry citations
    1. Rat neurospheres.
      Benito-Munoz, M. et al. (2016) Glia 64, 1465.
    More product citations
    1. Damen, R. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e62607.
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