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Peptide KDSATNN*STEPWDGTTNESC, corresponding to amino acid residues 147-166 of human A2BAR with replacement of cysteine 154 (C154) with serine (*S) (Accession P29275). 2nd extracellular loop.
Western blot analysis of HL-60 (lanes 1 and 2) cell line, rat brain (lanes 3 and 4) and mouse brain (lanes 5 and 6) lysates:1,3,5. Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:200).
2,4,6. Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with the control peptide antigen.
Expression of Adenosine A2B Receptor in rat lungImmunohistochemical staining of rat lung paraffin embedded sections using Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:50). Staining is present in the respiratory epithelium of the bronchiole (Br) as well as in the pneumonocytes of the alveolar wall (alveoli, (A). Color reaction was obtained with SuperPicture HRP-conjugated polymer (Zymed) followed by DAB. Hematoxilin is used as the counterstain.
Expression of Adenosine A2B Receptor in rat PC12 cellsCell surface detection of Adenosine A2B Receptor in intact living rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. A. Extracellular staining of cells using Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003), (1:100) followed by goat anti-rabbit-AlexaFluor-594 secondary antibody. B. Merge of A and live view of the cells.
Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside generated locally in tissues under conditions of hypoxia, ischemia, or inflammation. It modulates a variety of physiological functions in many tissues including the brain and heart.1,2 Adenosine exerts its actions via four specific adenosine receptors (also named P1 purinergic receptors): Adenosine A1 Receptor (A1AR), Adenosine A2A Receptor (A2AAR), Adenosine A2B Receptor (A2BAR), and Adenosine A3 Receptor (A3AR). All are integral membrane proteins and are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They share a common structure of seven putative transmembrane domains, an extracellular amino terminus, a cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus, and a third intracellular loop important in binding G proteins.1-3
The various adenosine receptors can be distinguished on the basis of their distinct molecular structures, distinct tissue distributions, and differential selectivity for adenosine analogs.1-4
The adenosine A2 receptor subtype was subdivided according to affinity for adenosine; A2AAR has high affinity and A2BAR has low affinity.
A2BAR is expressed in mast cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, bronchial epithelium, intestinal epithelium, smooth muscle, brain, and other cells.5 In intestinal epithelia, A2BAR was found to be the major adenosine receptor subtype expressed and is thought to be involved in diarrheal diseases. It is also believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases.4 Thus, antagonists of A2BAR might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory gastrointestinal tract disorders4 as well as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.5
Species reactivity key:
Anti-Adenosine A2B Receptor (extracellular) Antibody (#AAR-003) is a highly specific antibody directed against an extracellular epitope of human adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR). The antibody can be used in western blot, immunohistochemistry, live cell imaging and indirect flow cytometry applications. It has been designed to recognize A2BAR from human, rat and mouse samples.
Human ovarian cancer A1780 and HEY cell lysates.
Sureechatchaiyan, P. et al. (2018) Purinergic Signal. 14, 395.
Human skin lysate.
Andres, R.M. et al. (2017) J. Invest. Dermatol. 137, 123.
Rat lung lysate.
Densmore, J.C. et al. (2017) Exp. Lung Res. 43, 38.
- Rat retina cell lysate (1:1000).
Vindeirinho, J. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e67499.
Rat pancreas sections (1:800).
Hayashi, M. et al. (2016) Eur. J. Physiol. 468, 1171.
Mouse lymph node dendritic cells.
Gardner, J.K. et al. (2018) Front. Med. (Lausanne) 5, 337.
- Damen, R. et al. (2013) PLoS ONE 8, e62607.