Anti-GPR40/FFAR1 (extracellular) Antibody

G-protein coupled receptor 40, Free fatty acid receptor 1
    Cat #: AFR-011
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Antigen Incl.
  • Shipped at Room Temp.
  • Type: Polyclonal
    Source: Rabbit
    Reactivity: r
    May also work in: h, m
    Immunogen
    Peptide, (C)NVASFINPDLEGSWRK corresponding to amino acid residues 244-259 of rat FFAR1 (Accession Q8K3T4).
    Accession (Uniprot) Number Q8K3T4
    Gene ID 266607
    Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
    Homology Mouse - 15/16 amino acid residues identical; human - 12/16 amino acid residues identical.
    Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
    Formulation Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
    Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Reconstitution 50 µl or 0.2 ml double distilled water (DDW), depending on the sample size.
    Antibody concentration after reconstitution 1 mg/ml.
    Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Control antigen storage before reconstitution Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for 2 weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Control antigen reconstitution 100 µl double distilled water (DDW).
    Control antigen storage after reconstitution -20°C.
    Preadsorption Control 1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.
    Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis.
    Applications: wb
    May also work in: ic, ifc, ih, ip, lci
    Western blot
    Western blot analysis of rat pancreas lysate: 
    1. Anti-GPR40/FFAR1 (extracellular) Antibody (#AFR-011), (1:200).
    2. Anti-GPR40/FFAR1 (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with the control peptide antigen.
    References
    1. Stoddart, L.A. et al. (2008) Pharmacol. Rev. 60, 405.
    2. Briscoe, C.P. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 11303.
    3. Itoh, Y. et al. (2003) Nature 422, 173.
    4. Brown, A.J. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 11312.
    5. Le Poul, E. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 25481.
    6. Karaki, S. et al. (2006) Cell. Tissue Res. 324, 353.
    Scientific background

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) were for long believed to influence cellular metabolism. Hoever, the discovery that FFAs actually mediate their effects through one of three G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) - Free Fatty Acid Receptors 1-3 (FFAR1-3), has initiated a number of studies in order to assess their implication in health and disease1.

    Like all other GPCRs, FFAR1-3 have seven transmembrane domains, an extracellular N-terminal tail and an intracellular C-terminus.

    FFAR1 is activated by either medium or long, saturated or unsaturated fatty acids2,3, whereas FFAR2 and FFAR3 are activated by short chain fatty acids4,5. FFAR1 is coupled to Gq and leads to Ca2+ mobilization upon activation. FFAR2 couples to both pertussis-sensitive and insensitive G-proteins and also leads to increased intracellular Ca2+ levels. FFAR3 coupling to G-protein induces an increase in cAMP1.

    Distribution studies of all three FFA Receptors indicate that FFAR1 mRNA is quite elevated in the pancreas2,3. FFAR1 is also detected in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle, and brain; although this broad localization pattern is supported only by one study2. FFAR2 is expressed in many tissues like liver and colon6. FFAR3 is expressed in many tissues but shows highest expression in adipose tissue4. Relatively high expression of the receptor could be detected in pancreas, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow4,5.

    As mentioned above, the finding that FFAs’ actions are mediated by GPCRs, prompted many studies in order to elucidate their roles in healthy and disease states. Such studies stipulate that FFAR1 may be involved in obesity and type 2 diabetes since circulating free fatty acid levels in the plasma are significantly elevated. On the other hand, FFAR2 and FFAR3 could be potential targets for treating irritable bowel disease and appetite control1.

    Application key:

    CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

    Species reactivity key:

    H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat
    Last update: 30/12/2018

    Anti-GPR40/FFAR1 (extracellular) Antibody (#AFR-011) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the rat Free fatty acid receptor 1. The antibody can be used in western blot analysis. The antibody recognizes an extracellular epitope and can potentially recognize the protein in living cells. It has been designed to recognize FFAR1 from mouse, rat, and human samples.

    For research purposes only, not for human use