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Substance P (SP), Neurokinin A (NKA) and Neurokinin B (NKB) are all peptides belonging to the Tachykinin protein family. These three peptides which demonstrate a quite heterogeneity in their distribution exert their effect via three receptors: Neurokinin 1-3 receptors, members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. However, Neurokinin 1 Receptor (NK1) preferentially binds Substance P, Neurokinin 2 Receptor (NK2) to NKA and Neurokinin 3 Receptor (NK3) to NKB1.
Neurokinin receptors are distinguished by their seven transmembrane domains, an extracellular N-terminus and a cytosolic C-terminal. An unusual property of these receptors is the presence of introns as part of their structural organization1-3. Tachykinin receptors undergo alternative splicing. For example, NK1 is detected with different C-terminal lengths. The longer receptor isoform is found in the brain whereas the truncated form is mostly detected in the periphery1,4.
Due to the broad expression profile of tachykinin peptides, their respective receptors are also expressed in a similar fashion. NK1 is widely expressed in neurons endothelial cells, muscle and immune system cells. NK2 is broadly expressed in the periphery and its expression in the brain is quite restricted. NK3 on the other hand is largely expressed in the central nervous system and is also detected in the uterus, skeletal muscle, lung and liver1.
Neurokinin receptors have been found in many pathophysiological indications and have therefore become targets for the development of pharmacological compounds. Such indications include cancer, psychological disorders, migraine and various inflammations, just to name a few5-8.
Species reactivity key:
Immuno-colocalization of Noradrenaline Transporter (NET) and Neurokinin Receptor 1 (NK1) in rat brain stem.Immunohistochemical staining of perfusion-fixed frozen rat brain sections using Anti-Noradrenaline Transporter (NET) (extracellular) Antibody (#AMT-002), (1:400) and Anti-Neurokinin Receptor 1 (NK1) (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#ATR-001-AG), (1:80). A. NET staining (red) in section of rat locus coeruleus. B. NK1 staining (green) in same section. C. Merge of the two images reveals several cells expressing both NET and NK1 (arrows). Cell nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue).
Anti-Neurokinin Receptor 1 (NK1) (extracellular) Antibody (#ATR-001) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the rat protein. The antibody can be used in western blot, indirect live cell flow cytometry, and live cell imaging applications. It has been designed to recognize NK1 from rat, mouse, and human samples.
Anti-Neurokinin Receptor 1 (NK1) (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#ATR-001-AG) is directly labeled with an ATTO-488 fluorescent dye. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. The ATTO-488 label is analogous to the well known dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and can be used with filters typically used to detect FITC. Anti-Neurokinin Receptor 1 (NK1) (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody is especially suited to experiments requiring simultaneous labeling of different markers.
Products for control experiments
- Anti-Neurokinin Receptor 1 (NK1) (extracellular) Antibody (#ATR-001), (for western blot analysis).