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Central nervous system neurons have traditionally been thought to express exclusively membrane transporters and/or vesicular transporters for their transmitter. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been cloned: BNPI/VGLUT1 (a brain-specific sodium dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporter), and its homologs DNPI/VGLUT2 (differentiation-associated sodium-dependent Pi transporter) and VGLUT31. These transporters mediate glutamate uptake inside presynaptic vesicles and are anatomical and functional markers of glutamatergic excitatory transmission2.
BNPI/DNPI encodes a membrane protein with 6-8 putative transmembrane domains which exhibits weak similarities to a kidney Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate co-transporter3. The transporters use a membrane potential gradient set by the vesicular H+-ATPase for glutamate uptake4. VGLUT1-3 are very similar in structure and function, but are used by different neuronal populations. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are expressed by the cortical and subcortical neurons respectively. VGLUT3 is expressed by non-glutamatergic neurons5. VGLUT2 is expressed in the thalamus, brainstem, and deep cerebellar nuclei2. A Recent study has shown that targeted deletion of VGLUT2 in mice causes perinatal lethality and a 95% reduction in evoked glutamatergic responses in thalamic neurons, although hippocampal synapses function normally. Behavioral analysis of heterozygous VGLUT2 mice showed discrete behavioral phenotypes that suggest a deficit in thalamic processing6.
Species reactivity key:
Immuno-colocalization of Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor and VGLUT2 in mouse hippocampus.Immunohistochemical staining of mouse hippocampal CA3 region frozen sections using Anti-Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#APR-052-AG), (1:60) and Anti-VGLUT2-ATTO-594 Antibody (#AGC-036-AR), (1:60). A. PTH2 receptor staining (green). B. VGLUT2 staining (red) in same section. C. Merge of A and B suggests extensive localization of PTH2R on glutamatergic neurons.
Anti-VGLUT2 Antibody (#AGC-036) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the rat Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2. The antibody can be used in western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry applications. It has been designed to recognize VGLUT2 from rat, mouse and human samples.
Anti-VGLUT2-ATTO-594 Antibody (#AGC-036-AR) is directly labeled with an ATTO-594 fluorescent dye. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. The ATTO-594 fluorescent label belongs to the class of Rhodamine dyes and can be used with fluorescent equipment typically optimized to detect Texas Red and Alexa-594. Anti-VGLUT2-ATTO-594 Antibody has been tested in immunohistochemical applications and is specially suited to experiments requiring simultaneous labeling of different markers.
Products for control experiments
- Anti-VGLUT2 Antibody (#AGC-036), (for western blot analysis).
- Anti-VGLUT1 Antibody (#AGC-035)
- Anti-VGLUT3 Antibody (#AGC-037)
- Anti-Vesicular GABA Transporter Antibody (#AGT-005)
- Anti-mGluR2 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-011)
- Anti-mGluR3 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-012)
- Anti-NMDAR1 (GluN1) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-001)
- Anti-GluR4 (GluA4) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-019)
- Anti-Glutamate Receptor δ1 (GluD1) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-038)
- Anti-EAAT1 (GLAST) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-021)
- Anti-EAAT2 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-022)
- Anti-EAAT3 Antibody (#AGC-023)
- Anti-EAAT4 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-024)
- Anti-SLC1A7 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-025)