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The NMDA receptors are encoded by seven genes: one NMDAR1 (or NR1) subunit, four NR2 (NR2A-NR2D) and two NR3 (NR3A-NR3B) subunits. The functional NMDA receptor appears to be a heterotetramer composed of two NMDAR1 and two NMDAR2 subunits. Whereas the NMDAR2 subunits that assemble with the NMDAR1 subunit can be either of the same kind (i.e. two NMDAR2A subunits) or different (one NMDAR2A with one NMDAR2B). NMDAR3 subunits can substitute the NMDAR2 subunits in their complex with the NMDAR1 subunit.
The NMDAR is unique among ligand-gated ion channels in that it requires the simultaneous binding of two obligatory agonists: glycine and glutamate that bind to the NMDAR1 and NMDAR2 binding sites respectively. Another unique characteristic of the NMDA receptors is their dependence on membrane potential. At resting membrane potentials the channels are blocked by extracellular Mg2+. Neuronal depolarization relieves the Mg2+ blockage and allows ion influx into the cells. NMDA receptors are strongly selective for Ca2+ influx differing from the other glutamate receptor ion channels that are non-selective cation channels.
Ca2+ entry through the NMDAR regulates numerous downstream signaling pathways including long term potentiation (a molecular model of memory) and synaptic plasticity that may underlie learning. In addition, the NMDA receptors have been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders including epilepsy, ischemic brain damage, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.
NMDA receptors expression and function are modulated by a variety of factors including receptor trafficking to the synapses and internalization as well as phosphorylation and interaction with other intracellular proteins.
Species reactivity key:
Immuno-colocalization of PSD-95 and GluN2B in rat brainImmunohistochemical staining of perfusion-fixed frozen rat parietal cortex sections using Anti-PSD-95 Antibody (#APZ-009), (1:400) and Anti-NMDAR2B (GluN2B) (extracellular)-ATTO-594 Antibody (#AGC-003-AR), (1:60). A. PSD-95 staining (green). B. The same sections were stained for GluN2B (red). C. Merge of the two images shows several cells expressing both proteins (arrows point to several examples). Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue).
Anti-NMDAR2B (GluN2B) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-003) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the rat protein. The antibody can be used in western blot, immunocytochemistry, live cell imaging, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation applications. It has been designed to recognize GluN2B from human, rat, and mouse samples.
Anti-NMDAR2B (GluN2B) (extracellular)-ATTO-594 Antibody (#AGC-003-AR) is directly labeled with an ATTO-594 fluorescent dye. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. The ATTO-594 fluorescent label belongs to the class of Rhodamine dyes and can be used with fluorescent equipment typically optimized to detect Texas Red and Alexa-594. Anti-NMDAR2B (GluN2B) (extracellular)-ATTO-594 Antibody has been tested in immunohistochemical applications and is specially suited to experiments requiring simultaneous labeling of different markers.
Products for control experiments
- Anti-NMDAR2B (GluN2B) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-003), (for western blot analysis).
- Anti-NMDAR2A (GluN2A) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-002)
- Anti-NMDAR2A (GluN2A) (extracellular)-ATTO-488 Antibody (#AGC-002-AG)
- Anti-NMDAR2C (GRIN2C) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-018)
- Anti-NMDAR2D (GRIN2D) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-020)
- Anti-NMDAR1 (GluN1) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-001)
- Anti-GluR2 (GluA2) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-005)
- Anti-mGluR5 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-007)
- Anti-Kainate Receptor GluK2 Antibody (#AGC-009)
- Anti-EAAT2 (GLT-1) (extracellular) Antibody (#AGC-022)
- Activators/Agonists: small molecules