Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels

Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (CaV) form an important route for Ca2+ entry into cells, upon deviations from the cells’ resting membrane potential. There are ten CaV α1 subunit genes, divided into three subfamilies on both a functional and sequence homology basis. The CaV1 subfamily includes four genes which encode the L-type channels, the CaV3 subfamily includes three genes encoding the T-type channels and the CaV2 subfamily consists of three isoforms encoding P/Q- , N- and R-type channels, with all three contributing to neurotransmitter release in neurons.