Every lot is tried & tested in a relevant biological assay.
Cys16 – C-terminal amide
Centrifuge all products before use (10000 x g, 5 min). Avoid multiple freezing and thawing.
- Alomone Labs Alpha-Conotoxin Vc1.1 inhibits α3/β2 nAChR heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
- Time course of Alpha-Conotoxin Vc1.1 (#STV-500) action on α3/β2 nAChR currents, elicited every 50 sec by a transient application of 10 µM ACh, while membrane potential was held at -80 mV. Application of 2 µM (green) and 10 µM (magenta) Alpha-Conotoxin Vc1.1 significantly inhibits the currents.
- Superimposed traces of α3/β2 nAChR currents evoked by ACh (arrow) after application of control, 2 µM (green) and 10 µM (magenta) Alpha-Conotoxin Vc1.1 (taken from the experiment in A).
α-Conotoxin Vc1.1 (Vc1.1) is a 16 amino acid synthetic version of a conopeptide, which was first discovered from a PCR screen of cDNA from the venom ducts of the tropical marine snail, Conus victoriae1. Vc1.1 adopts the archetypal three-dimensional structure of a-conotoxins, which consists of a helical region stabilized by two disulfide bonds. The α-conotoxin family members are defined, in part, by their pharmacological targets, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Vc1.1 is a neuronal nAChR antagonist that displays selectivity for the α9α10 subtype2. A subset of α-conotoxins have been shown to inhibit high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channel currents via activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor B (GABABR). GABABRs are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABABRs are promising targets for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including pain, depression, and drug addiction. Vc1.1 was the first α-conotoxin shown to inhibit HVA calcium channels (CaV2.2 and CaV2.3) via GABABR activation3,4.
Vc1.1 alleviates neuropathic pain in three human neuropathic pain rat models and accelerates the functional recovery of injured neurons5. This toxin has been tested in human clinical trials for the treatment of neuropathic pain, where it exhibited both clean safety and side effect profiles. In addition to its antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic actions in neuropathic pain models, Vc1.1 inhibits human DRG neurons via activation of the GABABR, which are the primary transducers at the start of the pain processing pathway6.
Vc1.1 (#STV-500) is a highly pure, synthetic, and biologically active peptide toxin.
- Anti-CACNA1B (CaV2.2) Antibody (#ACC-002)
- Anti-GABA(B) R1 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGB-001)
- Anti-GABA(B) R2 Antibody (#AGB-002)
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α10 (CHRNA10) Antibody (#ANC-010)
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α3 (CHRNA3) (extracellular) Antibody (#ANC-003)
- Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α9 (CHRNA9) Antibody (#ANC-019)