- Peptide (C)EDPKVNLSGLPRD, corresponding to amino acid residues 3 - 15 of mouse GPR12 (Accession P35412). Extracellular, N-term.
1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody
GPR12 (extracellular) Blocking Peptide (BLP-GR062)
- Western blot analysis of rat brain lysates (lanes 1 and 3) and mouse brain lysates (lanes 2 and 4):1-2. Anti-GPR12 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGR-062), (1:200).
3-4. Anti-GPR12 (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with GPR12 (extracellular) Blocking Peptide (BLP-GR062).
- Expression of GPR12 in rat cortex.Immunohistochemical staining of perfusion-fixed frozen mouse brain sections with Anti-GPR12 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGR-062), (1:300), followed by donkey anti-rabbit-biotin and Streptavidin-Cy3. A. Staining in the parietal cortex region, showed GPR12 immunoreactivity (red) in glial cell outlines (arrows). B. Pre-incubation of the antibody with GPR12 (extracellular) Blocking Peptide (BLP-GR062), suppressed staining. Cell nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue).
- Rosenbaum, D.M. et al. (2009) Nature., 459, 356.
- Tang, X.I. et al. (2012) Acta. Pharmacol., Sin., 33, 36.
- Allende, G. et al. (2020) Front. Pharmacol., 11, 628.
- Laun, A.S. et al. (2019) Acta. Pharmacol. Sin., 40, 300.
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are the largest family of membrane proteins and mediate most of the physiological responses to hormones, neurotransmitters and environmental stimulants. At the most basic level, all GPCRs are characterized by the presence of seven membrane-spanning α-helical segments separated by alternating intracellular and extracellular loop regions1. Orphan GPCRs is a group of GPCRs that their endogenous ligands remain unidentified and therefore their natural functions in doubt2.
GPR12 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor related phylogenetically, functionally, and pharmacologically with the cannabinoid system. It considered as a “constitutively active receptor” since it greatly stimulates adenylate cyclase in the absence of ligand-receptor interaction. GPR12 seems to couple Gαs as well as Gαi proteins since it stimulates baseline cAMP-dependent signaling by activating Gαs proteins, and also inhibits forskolin activated signaling through Gαi interaction3.
GPR12 expressed in the pituitary gland, in neurons in the frontal cortex, piriform cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and olfactory bulb. It was found that GPR12 plays a significant role in energy balance. GPR12 knock out mice exhibit increase body weight and body fat mass. In addition, overexpression of GPR12 leads to cancer cells migration and invasion via phosphorylation of Keratin 84.
Furthermore, GPR12 has been identified as an inverse agonist of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD)4.
Species reactivity key:
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Anti-GPR12 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGR-062) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the mouse protein. The antibody can be used in western blot and immunohistochemistry applications. It has been designed to recognize GPR12 from rat, mouse and human samples.
- Anti-Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-001)
- Anti-Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Antibody (#ACR-002)
- Anti-GPR18 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGR-068)
- Anti-GPR55 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-062)
- Anti-Human Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-003)
- Anti-Human GPR55 (extracellular) Antibody (#ACR-061)
- Anti-S1PR1 (EDG1) (extracellular) Antibody (#ASR-011)
- Anti-S1PR3 (EDG3) (extracellular) Antibody (#ASR-013)
- Anti-S1PR5/EDG8 (extracellular) Antibody (#ASR-015)