This product is freeze dried. All water molecules have been removed.
Every lot is tried & tested in a relevant biological assay.
Shahidi, S. et al. (1993) Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1157, 74.
Alomone Labs Apamin-Biotin blocks rat SK2 channels stably transfected in HEK293T cells.A. Time course of Apamin-Biotin (#STA-200-B) action on SK2 channels. Current amplitudes were plotted as a function of time. Membrane potential was held at -80 mV and cells were stimulated by a 150 ms voltage ramp from -120 mV to +60 mV every 10 sec. 1 nM, 10 nM and 50 nM Apamin-Biotin were perfused during 120 sec as indicated by the bar at 0 mV. B. Superimposed examples of SK2 channel current in the absence (control, black) and presence of 1 nM (green), 10 nM (red) and 50 nM (blue) Apamin-Biotin (taken from the experiment in A).Alomone Labs Apamin-Biotin stains rat parietal cortex.Lightly-fixed sections of rat brain were incubated overnight with Apamin-Biotin (#STA-200-B) (1 nM) followed by 45 minutes fixation in cold 4% paraformaldehyde and then addition of streptavidin labeled with ATTO-594. Most of the staining is seen in pyramidal neurons (horizontal arrows) as well as in astrocyte-like processes (vertical arrows).
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Apamin is a natural peptide isolated and purified from Apis mellifera bee venom. Apamin blocks small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK). It is specific for the SK1-3 isoforms, but ineffective in blocking other calcium activated K+ channels (see for example)2. In mammalian cell lines Apamin blocks expressed hSK1 with an IC50 of ~10nM 3, rSK1 and rSK2 with IC50 of ~3 and <1 nM respectively 4 and liver rSK3 with IC50 <1 nM.5 In Jurkat T-cells 5 nM of Apamin blocks 70% of hSK2 currents.6
Blocking these channels with Apamin slows down neuronal activity after hyperpolarization (see for example)7, as well as smooth muscle contraction8 and catecholamine secretion in adrenal gland.9 Electrophysiology application of long (~400 ms) voltage ramps, covering the whole physiological range (-160 to +40 mV), in the whole cell patch-clamp or voltage clamp configurations, before and after bath perfusion of the drug, allows the detection of the blocked channel currents (by comparison)1.
Apamin-Biotin (#STA-200-B) is a highly pure, synthetic, and biologically active conjugated peptide toxin.
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