Free shipping starts now, no minimum, no coupons required!

Anti-GPR4 (extracellular) Antibody

Acid-sensing G-protein coupled receptor 4, GPR19

Cat #: AGR-041
Alternative Name Acid-sensing G-protein coupled receptor 4, GPR19
Lyophilized Powder yes
Type: Polyclonal
Host: Rabbit
Reactivity: h, m, r
Immunogen
  • Peptide (C)RDRYNHTF(S)FEKFPME, corresponding to amino acid residues 162-177 of rat GPR4 (Accession Q4KLH9). 2nd extracellular loop.
Accession (Uniprot) Number Q4KLH9
Gene ID 308408
Peptide confirmation Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass spectrometry.
Homology Rat, mouse, human - 15/16 amino acid residues identical.
RRID AB_2756631.
Purity Affinity purified on immobilized antigen.
Form Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.
Isotype Rabbit IgG.
Storage before reconstitution The antibody ships as a lyophilized powder at room temperature. Upon arrival, it should be stored at -20°C.
Reconstitution 25 µl, 50 µl or 0.2 ml double distilled water (DDW), depending on the sample size.
Antibody concentration after reconstitution 0.8 mg/ml.
Storage after reconstitution The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C for up to 1 week. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
Standard quality control of each lot Western blot analysis.
Applications: ifc, ih, lci, wb
May also work in: ic*, ip*
Western blot
  • Western blot analysis of rat dorsal root ganglion lysate:
    Western blot analysis of rat dorsal root ganglion lysate:
    1. Anti-GPR4 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGR-041), (1:200).
    2. Anti-GPR4 (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with GPR4 (extracellular) Blocking Peptide (#BLP-GR041).
  • Western blot analysis of rat (lanes 1 and 3) and mouse (lanes 2 and 4) kidney membranes:
    Western blot analysis of rat (lanes 1 and 3) and mouse (lanes 2 and 4) kidney membranes:
    1,2. Anti-GPR4 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGR-041), (1:200).
    3,4. Anti-GPR4 (extracellular) Antibody, preincubated with GPR4 (extracellular) Blocking Peptide (#BLP-GR041).
Immunohistochemistry
  • Expression of GPR4 in rat dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). 
    Expression of GPR4 in rat dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). 
    Immunohistochemical staining of perfusion-fixed frozen rat brain sections with Anti-GPR4 (extracellular) Antibody(#AGR-041), (1:400), followed by goat anti-rabbit-Alexa-488. A. GPR4 immunoreactivity (green) appears in cells of both medial and lateral DRN (arrows).  B. Pre-incubation of the antibody with GPR4 (extracellular) Blocking Peptide (#BLP-GR041), suppressed staining. Cell nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). LDRN = lateral DRN, MDRN = medial DRN. 
Indirect flow cytometry
  • Cell surface detection of GPR4 in live intact human THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells:
    Cell surface detection of GPR4 in live intact human THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells:
    ___ Cells.
    ___ Cells + goat-anti-rabbit-FITC.
    ___ Cells + Anti-GPR4 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGR-041), (2.5 µg) + goat-anti-rabbit-FITC.
References
  1. Damaghi, M. et al. (2013) Front. Physiol. 4, 370.
  2. Miyano, K. et al. (2014) J. Pharmacol. Sci. 126, 302.
  3. Justus, C.R. et al. (2013) Front. Physiol. 4, 354.
  4. Im, D.S. (2005) Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 26, 1435.
Scientific background

G-protein coupled receptor 4 (GPR4) belongs to a protein family comprised of 3 related G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): GPR4, OGR1/GPR68 and TDAG8/GPR65. Like all GPCRs, GPR4's structure is composed of seven-transmembrane-spanning domains linked by an N-terminal extracellular domain and a C-terminal intracellular domain2.

GPR4 responds to pH changes and is activated by a physiological increase in extracellular H+ through several signaling pathways including- the G12/13-protein/Rho, the Gq/PLC, and the Gs-protein/cAMP pathway1,2. It is fully activated at pH levels of 6.8 and lower and is inactive at pH levels of 7.5 and higher3,4.

Recent studies show that the pH-sensing GPCRs also have the ability to regulate cancer cell metastasis and proliferation, immune cell function, inflammation, blood vessel formation, endothelial barrier function thus making them an important therapeutic target for different diseases. Overexpression of GPR4 in human cancer cells shows involvement in driving or maintaining tumor formation.

GPR4 is expressed in several tissues including lung, vascular endothelial cells, kidney, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, ovary, and placenta.

Application key:

CBE- Cell-based ELISA, FC- Flow cytometry, ICC- Immunocytochemistry, IE- Indirect ELISA, IF- Immunofluorescence, IFC- Indirect flow cytometry, IHC- Immunohistochemistry, IP- Immunoprecipitation, LCI- Live cell imaging, N- Neutralization, WB- Western blot

Species reactivity key:

H- Human, M- Mouse, R- Rat
Last update: 08/06/2022

Anti-GPR4 (extracellular) Antibody (#AGR-041) is a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of the rat protein. The antibody can be used in western blot and indirect live cell flow cytometry applications. The antibody recognizes an extracellular epitope and is thus ideal for detecting the receptor in living cells. It has been designed to recognize GPR4 from mouse, rat, and human samples.

For research purposes only, not for human use
Shipping and Ordering information