Every lot is tried & tested in a relevant biological assay.
- Chow, C.Y. et al. (2020) Biochem. Pharm., 181, 113991.
Centrifuge all products before use (10000 x, g 5 min). Avoid multiple freezing and thawing.
- Alomone Labs Hm1b toxin enhances the current of NaV1.1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.A. Representative time course of Hm1b Toxin (#STH-655) effect on the normalized area of NaV1.1 channels current. Membrane potential was held at -100 mV, current was elicited by a 100 ms voltage step to 0 mV every 10 sec, and was significantly enhanced by the application of 100 nM Hm1b (green). B. Superimposed traces of NaV1.1 current after application of control (black) and of 100 nM Hm1b toxin (green), taken from the recording in A.
δ-theraphotoxin-Hm1b (Hm1b) is a 34 amino acid peptidyl toxin originally isolated from the venom of the tarantula, Heteroscodra maculata1. Hm1b acts as a potent and highly selective activator of the voltage-gated sodium (NaV) 1.1 and NaV1.3 channels. This toxin inhibits the inactivation of the human NaV1.1 channel (expressed in HEK293 cells) with an EC value of 12 nM1,2.
The Hm1b toxin has a high level of sequence similarity to the Hm1a toxin, which is also a selective and specific activator of NaV1.1 channels. Both toxins are members of the extended family of inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) peptides with C1–C4, C2–C5, and C3–C6 disulfide architecture. In addition, they share secondary structure characteristics, specifically an antiparallel β hairpin. Despite the high degree of sequence similarity between Hm1a and Hm1b, the latter is much more stable in biological fluids2.
NaV channels are involved in a wide array of physiological processes and play a fundamental role in normal neurological function, especially in the initiation and propagation of action potentials. NaV1.1 channel has been utilized as a therapeutic target for various brain disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism. The NaV1.1 channel also contributes to mechanical pain by regulating the excitability of a specific subset of sensory neurons within the peripheral nervous system.
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Hm1b Toxin (#STH-655) is a highly pure, synthetic, and biologically active peptide toxin.