Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590

K+ channel toxin ShK, Toxin κ-stichotoxin-She1a, κ-SHTX-She1a
Fluorescent ShK Conjugate for Sensitive Detection of KV Channels
    Cat #: STS-400-AR
    Alternative Name K+ channel toxin ShK, Toxin κ-stichotoxin-She1a, κ-SHTX-She1a
  • Lyophilized Powder
  • Bioassay Tested
  • Origin Modified synthetic peptide originated from Stichodactyla helianthus (Caribbean sea anemone).
    MW: ~ 4627 Da.
    Purity: >99% (HPLC)
    Form Lyophilized powder.
    Effective concentration 1-100 nM.
    Modifications Cys3-Cys35, Cys12-Cys28, Cys17-Cys32.
    Label ATTO-590. ATTO dyes are characterized by strong absorption (high extinction coefficient), high fluorescence quantum yield, and high photo-stability. ATTO-590 maximum absorption is 593 nm and maximum fluorescence is at 622 nm. The fluorescence is excited most efficiently in the 575-610 nm range. The extent of labeling is 1 molecule of dye per molecule ShK.
    • Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590
    Activity Stichodactyla Toxin blocks KV1.3, KV1.1, KV1.4, and KV1.6 at subnanomolar concentrations and KV3.2 channels at 1000-fold higher concentration than that required to inhibit KV1.3 channels1-3.
    1. Pennington, M.W. et al. (1995) Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 46, 354.
    2. Beeton, C. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 9928.
    3. Middleton, R.E. et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 13698.
    Shipping and storage Shipped at room temperature. Product as supplied can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Solubility Any aqueous buffer. Centrifuge all product preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Storage of solutions Up to two weeks at 4°C or three months at -20°C.
    Our bioassay
    • Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590
      Binding of Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590 to Purkinje cells in the rat cerebellum.
      Lightly-fixed floating rat brain sections were labeled with Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590 (#STS-400-AR), (100 nM). A. Staining of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum (arrows). B. Staining of neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei (arrows). DAPI is used as the counterstain (blue).
    • Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590
      Alomone Labs Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590 blocks KV1.3 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
      A. Representative time course of Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590 (#STS-400-AR) inhibition of KV1.3 current. Membrane potential was held at -100 mV, current was elicited by a 100 ms voltage ramp to +60 mV every 10 sec, and significantly inhibited by 10 nM Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590 (green). B. Superimposed traces of KV1.3 current after application of control (black) and of 10 nM Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590 (green), taken from the recording in A.
    References - Scientific background
    1. Castaneda, O. et al. (1995) Toxicon 33, 603.
    2. Pennington, M.W. et al. (1995) Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 46, 354.
    3. Beeton, C. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 9928.
    4. Middleton, R.E. et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 13698.
    5. Yan, L. et al. (2005) Mol. Pharmacol. 67, 1513.
    Scientific background

    ShK (Stichodactyla Toxin) is a peptide toxin originally isolated from the nematocyst of the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus1.

    ShK blocks KV1.3KV1.1KV1.4, and KV1.6 at subnanomolar concentrations and KV3.2 channels at 1000-fold higher concentration than that required to inhibit KV1.3 channels. It has been shown to block KV current in DRG neurons, to displace radioactive Dendrotoxin from brain synaptosomesand inhibit I125-Charybdotoxin binding to Jurkat T lymphocytes with an IC50 of 32 pM2,4.

    Evidence also suggests that native KV currents in the central nervous system, which are predominantly carried by KV1.2 channels, are highly sensitive to this toxin5.

    A fluorescently labeled synthetic ShK is used to recognize and to sort KV1.3 containing lymphocytes4,6.

    Target KV1.1, KV1.3, KV1.4, KV1.6 channels
    Net Peptide Content: 100%
    Last update: 24/01/2020

    Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590 (#STS-400-AR) is a highly pure, synthetic, and biologically active peptide toxin conjugated to ATTO-590 fluorescent dye.

    Benefits of Stichodactyla Toxin-ATTO-590:
     Localization and distribution
     Clustering and internalization kinetics
     Live cell imaging
     Single cell detection
     Binding kinetics

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    For research purposes only, not for human use
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