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µ/ω-TRTX-Tap1a

Mu/omega-TRTX-Tap1a, Mu/omega-theraphotoxin-Tap1a, Tap1a

A Blocker of Voltage-Gated Na+ and T-Type Ca2+ Channels

Cat #: STT-600
Alternative Name Mu/omega-TRTX-Tap1a, Mu/omega-theraphotoxin-Tap1a, Tap1a
Lyophilized Powder yes
  • Bioassay Tested
  • Origin Theraphosa apophysis (Goliath pinkfoot tarantula) (Pseudotheraphosa apophysis)
    Source Synthetic peptide
    MW: 4182.7 Da
    Purity: >98%
    Form Lyophilized Powder
    Effective concentration 80 nM – 1 µM
    Sequence DDCLGMFSSCDPNNDKCCPNRKCSRKDQWCKYQLW-OH
    Modifications Disulfide bonds location: Cys3-Cys18, Cys10-Cys23, Cys17-Cys30
    Structure
    Molecular formula C174H258N52O55S7
    Activity Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nav1.7 and Cav3.1 blocker at nanomolar concentrations (IC50=81-301 nM). Surprisingly, selectively slows fast inactivation of Nav1.3. Also shows moderate inhibition of Cav3.2 (IC50=1233 nM)1.
    References-Activity
    1. Cardoso, F. C. et al. (2021) Pain 162, 569.
    Shipping and storage Shipped at room temperature. Product as supplied can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.
    Solubility Soluble in double distilled water (ddH2O). For long-term storage in solution, we recommend to prepare a stock solution by dissolving the product in ddH2O at a concentration X100-1000 of final working solution. Divide the solution into small aliquots and store at -20°C. Upon use, thaw the relevant vial intended for use and dilute in your desired working buffer.
    Storage of solutions The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4°C for up to 1 week. For longer periods (up to 6 months), small aliquots should be stored at -20°C. We do not recommend storing the toxin in working solutions for longer than a few days. Avoid multiple freeze- thaw cycles.
    Our bioassay
    • Alomone Labs µ/ω-TRTX-Tap1a inhibits NaV1.7 channel currents in stably transfected HEK293 cells
      Alomone Labs µ/ω-TRTX-Tap1a inhibits NaV1.7 channel currents in stably transfected HEK293 cells
      A. Representative time course (n=6) of µ/ω-TRTX-Tap1a (#STT-600) inhibition of NaV1.7 channels current. Membrane potential was held at -100 mV, current was elicited by a 10 ms voltage step to 0 mV every 5 sec, and significantly inhibited by application of 100 nM
      µ/ω-TRTX-Tap1a.
      B. Superimposed traces of NaV1.7 channel currents in the absence (control) and presence (green) of 100 nM µ/ω-TRTX-Tap1a (taken from the recording in A).
    References - Scientific background
    1. Cardoso, F. C. et al. (2021) Pain 162, 569.
    2. Lory, P. et al. (2020) Pflugers Arch – Eur. J. Physiol. 472, 831.
    3. Pan, C. et al. (2021) Curr. Med. Sci. 41, 680.
    4. Candelas, M. et al. (2019) Sci. Rep. 9, 3112.
    5. Dongol, Y. et al. (2019) Toxins 11, 626.
    6. Reynolds, C. et al. (2020) Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. 24, 117.
    Scientific background

    µ/ω-TRTX-Tap1a (Tap1a) is a 35 amino acid peptidyl toxin originally isolated from the venom of the tarantula, Theraphosa apophysis. Tap1a inhibits voltage-gated sodium (NaV) and voltage-gated calcium (CaV)3 channels by inducing a hyperpolarizing shift in both voltage-dependent activation and steady state inactivation1. Tap1a specifically inhibits NaV1.7, NaV1.2, and CaV3.1 with nanomolar potency and NaV1.3, NaV1.6, NaV1.1, and CaV3.2 at low micromolar concentrations1. These ion channels participate in neuron polarization, transmission of somatosensory signals, as well as neuronal cell differentiation, death, and survival. Thus, they are involved in many diseases, including pain disorders, epilepsy, and age-related neurodegeneration.

    Spider peptides modulate an array of ion channels and receptor proteins. Knottins, which are a subtype of spider peptides, are also referred to as inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) peptides. ICK peptides harbor a disulfide-rich structural motif that forms a “knot”, which confers high structural, thermal, and proteolytic stability. The modelled structure of Tap1a revealed an ICK fold typical of spider venom peptides, as well as a hydrophobic patch involved in the binding of spider venom peptides to CaV3 and NaV channels1.

    CaV3 are T-type, low voltage-gated calcium channels. Their electrophysiological properties include low voltage thresholds for activation and inactivation, rapid inactivation, and rebound bursting. These properties are responsible for the CaV3-mediated fine-tuned regulation of neuronal excitability in both the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)2.

    CaV3.1 is highly expressed in the brain amygdala, subthalamic nuclei, cerebellum, and thalamus. In contrast, CaV3.1 is only moderately expressed in the heart. CaV3.1 participates in neuron polarization, synaptic transmission, as well as neuronal cell differentiation, death, and survival. CaV3.1 was implicated in the process of age-related neurodegeneration, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease3. Moreover, mutations in CaV3.1 have been shown to induce cerebellar ataxia. CaV3.2 channels are expressed in the thalamus where they play a role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. In addition, the constitutive deletion of the CaV3.2 gene alleviates acute pain, inflammatory pain, and chronic visceral pain in mice4.

    NaV1.1–1.9 are voltage-gated sodium channels. They open upon depolarization of the membrane and inactivate rapidly before returning to the closed state upon membrane hyperpolarization. The rapid influx of Na+ ions is vital to the generation and propagation of action potential (AP) as well as the transmission of somatosensory signals.

    NaV1.7 is expressed in the PNS, dorsal root ganglia neurons, visceral sensory neurons, olfactory sensory neurons, trigeminal ganglia, and sympathetic neurons. NaV1.7 gain-of-function mutations have been identified in patients with various pain disorders, such as inherited erythromelalgia (IEM), paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD), small fiber neuropathy (SFN), and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy5.

    NaV1.2 is abundantly expressed at the nodes of Ranvier and in the axon initial segment (AIS) during early development. NaV1.2 plays a dominant role in the initiation and propagation of APs. In mature neurons, NaV1.6 takes the role of AP initiation, and   NaV1.2 merely augments APs. Pathogenic variants of NaV1.2 are common causes of neurodevelopmental disorders such as episodic ataxia, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability with and without seizures6.

    Target NaV channels and T-type Ca2+ channels
    Peptide Content: 100%
    Last update: 20/12/2022

    µ/ω-TRTX-Tap1a (#STT-600) is a highly pure, synthetic, and biologically active peptide toxin.

    For research purposes only, not for human use

    Applications

    Specifications

    Scientific Background

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