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Tetrodotoxin citrate free

TTX
A Classic Blocker of a Subset of NaV Channels
Cat #: T-500
Alternative Name TTX
Lyophilized Powder yes
  • Bioassay Tested
  • Origin Tetraodon pardalis (puffer fish).
    Source Natural
    MW: 319.28
    Purity: >99% (HPLC)
    Effective concentration 100 nM - 1 µM.
    Structure
    Chemical name Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10adimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol.
    Molecular formula C11H17N3O8.
    CAS No.: 4368-28-9.
    Activity Tetrodotoxin is a potent and selective blocker of a subclass of NaV channels1, and is often used to define subclasses of NaV channels2.
    References-Activity
    1. Narahashi, T. et al. (1964) J. Gen. Physiol47, 965.
    2. Hille, B. (2001) In: Ion Channels in Excitable Membranes (third edition) chapter 3.
    Shipping and storage Shipped at room temperature. Product as supplied can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at 4°C.
    Solubility Acidic buffer (pH 4.8). Centrifuge all product preparations before use (10000 x g 5 min).
    Storage of solutions Up to one week at 4°C or six months at -20°C.
    Our bioassay
    • Alomone Labs Tetrodotoxin citrate free inhibits native NaV currents in PC12 and ND7-23 cells.
      Alomone Labs Tetrodotoxin citrate free inhibits native NaV currents in PC12 and ND7-23 cells.
      Tetrodotoxin citrate free (#T-500) inhibits PC12 (top) and ND7-23 (bottom) cells at a concentration of 60 nM. Left graphs show the time course of inward current amplitude upon bath application (marked by the horizontal bars) and wash of TTX. Membrane potential was clamped to -120 mV and currents were elicited by 20 ms test pulses to -10 or -20 mV (upper and lower graphs respectively), delivered every 10 sec. Right graphs show the superimposed traces of control current (red) and during perfusion of TTX (black).
    References - Scientific background
    1. Narahashi, T. et al. (1964) J. Gen. Physiol47, 965.
    2. Hille, B. (2001) In: Ion Channels in Excitable Membranes (third edition) chapter 3.
    Scientific background Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an established potent and selective blocker of some NaV channels.1 Moreover, TTX sensitivity is used to define subclasses of NaV channels.2 It is widely used both to probe NaV activity and to reduce or block excitability in neurophysiological preparations.
    Target Various NaV Na+ channels
    Last update: 16/08/2020

    Tetrodotoxin citrate free (#T-500) is a highly pure, natural, and biologically active compound.

    For research purposes only, not for human use

    Applications

    Specifications

    Scientific Background

    Citations

    Citations
    Product citations
    1. Askar, S.F.A. et al. (2013) Cardiovasc. Res. 97, 171.
    2. Bant, J.S. et al. (2013) J. Neurosci. 33, 4976.
    3. Browning, K.N. et al. (2013) J. Physiol. 591, 1563.
    4. Browning, K.N. et al. (2013) J. Physiol. 591, 2357.
    5. Dvorzhak, A. et al. (2013) J. Physiol. 591, 1145.
    6. Lu, V.B. et al. (2013) Mol. Pharmacol. 83, 267.
    7. Luo, R. et al. (2013) J. Physiol. 591, 203.
    8. Perez, G.J. et al. (2013) Am. J. Physiol. 304, C280.
    9. Ran, I. et al. (2013) J. Neurosci. 33, 1872.
    10. Ryan, R.T. et al. (2013) Cereb. Cortex 23, 1198.
    11. Tonini, R. et al. (2013) J. Neurophysiol. 109, 1514.
    12. Wen, H. et al. (2013) J. Neurosci. 33, 7384.
    13. Akemann, W. et al. (2012) J. Neurophysiol. 108, 2323.
    14. Colgan, L.A. et al. (2012) J. Neurosci. 32, 15737.
    15. Gkogkas, C.G. et al. (2012) Nature 493, 371.
    16. Goutman, J.D. (2012) J. Neurosci. 32, 17025.
    17. Janiek, R. et al. (2012) J. Physiol. 590, 5091.
    18. Kohlmeier, K.A. et al. (2012) J. Neurophysiol. 108, 2751.
    19. Song, W. et al. (2012) J. Physiol. 590, 5123.
    20. Guzman, J.N. et al. (2009) J. Neurosci. 29, 11011.
    21. Wan, S. et al. (2008) J. Neurosci. 28, 4957.
    22. Hirasawa, M. et al. (2004) J. Physiol. 559, 611.
    23. Jennings, E.A. et al. (2001) J. physiol. 534, 805.
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